How to format your references using the Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McKinney J D 2014 Technology: Photonics illuminates the future of radar Nature 507 310–1
A journal article with 2 authors
Lauder J M and Oppenheim R 2001 Obituary. Viktor Hamburger (1900-2001) Nature 412 496
A journal article with 3 authors
Lappala A, Zaccone A and Terentjev E M 2013 Ratcheted diffusion transport through crowded nanochannels Sci. Rep. 3 3103
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Woo J S, Han J T, Jung S, Jang J I, Kim H Y, Jeong H J, Jeong S Y, Baeg K-J and Lee G-W 2014 Electrically robust metal nanowire network formation by in-situ interconnection with single-walled carbon nanotubes Sci. Rep. 4 4804

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fisher H G, Forrest H S, Grossel S S, Huff J E, Muller A R, Noronha J A, Shaw D A and Tilley B J 1993 Emergency Relief System Design Using DIERS Technology (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Zeng X, Li Y, Ruan D and Koehl L 2007 Computational Textile vol 55 (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Kerzner D S and Chodikoff D W 2016 International Tax Enforcement in the United States International Tax Evasion in the Global Information Age ed D W Chodikoff (Cham: Springer International Publishing) pp 153–205

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics.

Blog post
Andrew E 2015 World’s Most Lifelike Bionic Hand Developed IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2009 Student Achievement: Schools Use Multiple Strategies to Help Students Meet Academic Standards, Especially Schools with Higher Proportions of Low-Income and Minority Students (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pezzolesi M G 2008 Novel Mechanisms of PTEN Dysfunction in PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndromes Doctoral dissertation (Columbus, OH: Ohio State University)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K 2002 Alicia Keys Is the Talk Of Her Old Neighborhood New York Times 146

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics
AbbreviationJ. Phys. G Nucl. Part. Phys.
ISSN (print)0954-3899
ISSN (online)1361-6471
ScopeNuclear and High Energy Physics

Other styles