How to format your references using the Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smil V V 2000 Jumbo Nature 406 239
A journal article with 2 authors
Boroson T A and Lauer T R 2009 A candidate sub-parsec supermassive binary black hole system Nature 458 53–5
A journal article with 3 authors
Häusser M, Major G and Stuart G J 2001 Differential shunting of EPSPs by action potentials Science 291 138–41
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Noda S, Yokoyama M, Imada M, Chutinan A and Mochizuki M 2001 Polarization mode control of two-dimensional photonic crystal laser by unit cell structure design Science 293 1123–5

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Arden J B and Linford L 2008 Brain-Based Therapy with Adults (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Aneva B and Kouteva-Guentcheva M 2015 Nonlinear Mathematical Physics and Natural Hazards: Selected Papers from the International School and Workshop held in Sofia, Bulgaria, 28 November – 02 December, 2013 vol 163 (Cham: Springer International Publishing)
A chapter in an edited book
Wong J C, Lee G H T, Zhang Y, Yim W S, Fornia R P, Xu D Y, Lee C E, Kok J L and Cheong S A 2013 Comparing the Macroeconomic Responses of US and Japan through Time Series Segmentation Knowledge Discovery, Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management: Third International Joint Conference, IC3K 2011, Paris, France, October 26-29, 2011. Revised Selected Papers Communications in Computer and Information Science ed A Fred, J L G Dietz, K Liu and J Filipe (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer) pp 79–93

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics.

Blog post
Fang J 2015 Invasive Weeds Sustain Malaria-Spreading Mosquitoes IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2008 Federal Aviation Administration: Efforts to Hire, Staff, and Train Air Traffic Controllers Are Generally on Track, but Challenges Remain (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lotrecchiano G R 2012 Social Mechanisms of Team Science: A Descriptive Case Study Using a Multilevel Systems Perspective Employing Reciprocating Structuration Theory Doctoral dissertation (Washington, DC: George Washington University)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
de la MERCED M J 2017 A Flat First Day For Blue Apron New York Times B4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Physics D: Applied Physics
AbbreviationJ. Phys. D Appl. Phys.
ISSN (print)0022-3727
ISSN (online)1361-6463
ScopeElectronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Acoustics and Ultrasonics
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles