How to format your references using the Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sterman J D 2008 Economics. Risk communication on climate: mental models and mass balance Science 322 532–3
A journal article with 2 authors
Wilberg M J and Miller T J 2007 Comment on “Impacts of biodiversity loss on ocean ecosystem services” Science 316 1285; author reply 1285
A journal article with 3 authors
Wieczorek M A, Weiss B P and Stewart S T 2012 An impactor origin for lunar magnetic anomalies Science 335 1212–5
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Shao X, Lu W, Zhang R and Pan F 2013 Enhanced photocatalytic activity of TiO₂-C hybrid aerogels for methylene blue degradation Sci. Rep. 3 3018

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Boulanger J-L 2013 Safety Management for Software-based Equipment (Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Novales A 2014 Economic Growth: Theory and Numerical Solution Methods ed E Fernández and J Ruiz (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Austrin P, Kaski P, Koivisto M and Määttä J 2013 Space–Time Tradeoffs for Subset Sum: An Improved Worst Case Algorithm Automata, Languages, and Programming: 40th International Colloquium, ICALP 2013, Riga, Latvia, July 8-12, 2013, Proceedings, Part I Lecture Notes in Computer Science ed F V Fomin, R Freivalds, M Kwiatkowska and D Peleg (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer) pp 45–56

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics.

Blog post
Hale T 2017 Hundreds Of Cats Are Quarantined Following Bird Flu Outbreak In NYC IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1979 Information on the Labor Department’s Skill Training Improvement Program (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ganji V G 2013 Exploring the application of haptic feedback guidance for port crane modernization Doctoral dissertation (Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart J B 2017 Struggling to Find the Spirit of ’86 New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Physics D: Applied Physics
AbbreviationJ. Phys. D Appl. Phys.
ISSN (print)0022-3727
ISSN (online)1361-6463
ScopeElectronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Acoustics and Ultrasonics
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles