How to format your references using the Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lang R F 2010 Astronomy. Fishing for the universe Science 327 1582–3
A journal article with 2 authors
Jones M K and Liu X 2009 Archaeology. Origins of agriculture in East Asia Science 324 730–1
A journal article with 3 authors
Ben-David O, Rubinstein S M and Fineberg J 2010 Slip-stick and the evolution of frictional strength Nature 463 76–9
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Sugden A, Ash C, Hanson B and Zahn L 2009 Happy birthday, Mr. Darwin. Introduction Science 323 727

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Speight J G 2017 Rules of Thumb for Petroleum Engineers (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Väänänen J, Hirvonen Å and de Queiroz R 2016 Logic, Language, Information, and Computation: 23rd International Workshop, WoLLIC 2016, Puebla, Mexico, August 16-19th, 2016. Proceedings vol 9803 (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Mizutani T, Igarashi S, Ikeda Y and Shio M 2006 Labeled @-Calculus: Formalism for Time-Concerned Human Factors Artificial Intelligence and Symbolic Computation: 8th International Conference, AISC 2006 Beijing, China, September 20-22, 2006 Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science ed J Calmet, T Ida and D Wang (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer) pp 25–39

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J 2017 Scientists To Hunt For Planets In Our Nearest Star System With Funding For New Instrument IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1994 Electronic Surveillance (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Castaneda Martinez N E 2013 Implementation of the Parent Partner Project to improve reunification rates in Sonoma County: A grant proposal Doctoral dissertation (Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Norris M 2010 FROM BROTHER TO SISTER New York Times MM66

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Physics D: Applied Physics
AbbreviationJ. Phys. D Appl. Phys.
ISSN (print)0022-3727
ISSN (online)1361-6463
ScopeElectronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Acoustics and Ultrasonics
Condensed Matter Physics

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