How to format your references using the Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Service R F 2008 Structural biology. Protein structure initiative: phase 3 or phase out Science 319 1610–3
A journal article with 2 authors
O’Brien S J and Murphy W J 2003 Genomics. A dog’s breakfast? Science 301 1854–5
A journal article with 3 authors
Canfield D E, Glazer A N and Falkowski P G 2010 The evolution and future of Earth’s nitrogen cycle Science 330 192–6
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Bae T, Tomasini L, Mariani J, Zhou B, Roychowdhury T, Franjic D, Pletikos M, Pattni R, Chen B-J, Venturini E, Riley-Gillis B, Sestan N, Urban A E, Abyzov A and Vaccarino F M 2018 Different mutational rates and mechanisms in human cells at pregastrulation and neurogenesis Science 359 550–5

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ko C J and Barr R J 2011 Dermatopathology (Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell)
An edited book
Vallecillo A, Tolvanen J-P, Kindler E, Störrle H and Kolovos D 2012 Modelling Foundations and Applications: 8th European Conference, ECMFA 2012, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark, July 2-5, 2012. Proceedings vol 7349 (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Awange J L and Paláncz B 2016 Groebner Basis Geospatial Algebraic Computations: Theory and Applications ed B Paláncz (Cham: Springer International Publishing) pp 37–52

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics.

Blog post
Hamilton K 2014 Why we love repetition in music IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2002 Information Technology Services: Agencies Complying with Revision to Federal Acquisition Regulation (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Renteria Y 2017 Respite services for post-adoption families transitioning from the child welfare system: A grant proposal Doctoral dissertation (Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chang S 2006 School Scandals: A Scorecard New York Times 14LI6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Physics D: Applied Physics
AbbreviationJ. Phys. D Appl. Phys.
ISSN (print)0022-3727
ISSN (online)1361-6463
ScopeElectronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Acoustics and Ultrasonics
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles