How to format your references using the Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Heckel D G 2012 Ecology. Insecticide resistance after Silent spring Science 337 1612–4
A journal article with 2 authors
Gorlach S and Slabicki M 2004 Scientists and societies. The Polish biotech gap Nature 427 870
A journal article with 3 authors
Thompson J K, Rainville S and Pritchard D E 2004 Cyclotron frequency shifts arising from polarization forces Nature 430 58–61
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Guo P, Hirano M, Herrin B R, Li J, Yu C, Sadlonova A and Cooper M D 2009 Dual nature of the adaptive immune system in lampreys Nature 459 796–801

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vitale J 2007 The Seven Lost Secrets of Success (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Li S Z, Lai J, Tan T, Feng G and Wang Y 2005 Advances in Biometric Person Authentication: 5th Chinese Conference on Biometric Recognition, SINOBIOMETRICS 2004, Guangzhou, China, December 13-14, 2004. Proceedings vol 3338 (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Kumagai H, Watanabe H, Yahagi T, Kojima S, Nakai S, Toyoda S and Ishibashi J-I 2015 Evaluating Hydrothermal System Evolution Using Geochronological Dating and Biological Diversity Analyses Subseafloor Biosphere Linked to Hydrothermal Systems: TAIGA Concept ed J-I Ishibashi, K Okino and M Sunamura (Tokyo: Springer Japan) pp 49–59

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics.

Blog post
Andrews R 2015 Bobby Pin Found Piercing Child’s Kidney IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2010 Preliminary Observations on the Potential Effects of the Proposed Performance Rights Act on the Recording and Broadcast Radio Industries (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mantilla A N 2012 The differences in the educational experiences and caregiver involvement in education between youth in foster care and those in care of their biological parents Doctoral dissertation (Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J 2017 Beefier Syndergaard Envisions a Fastball With Even More Heft New York Times D5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Physics D: Applied Physics
AbbreviationJ. Phys. D Appl. Phys.
ISSN (print)0022-3727
ISSN (online)1361-6463
ScopeElectronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Acoustics and Ultrasonics
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles