How to format your references using the Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Anderson P W 2009 A Gross-Pitaevskii treatment for supersolid helium Science 324 631–2
A journal article with 2 authors
Catlow R and Fisher A 2011 Marshall Stoneham (1940-2011) Nature 471 306
A journal article with 3 authors
Sun X, Mariani F V and Martin G R 2002 Functions of FGF signalling from the apical ectodermal ridge in limb development Nature 418 501–8
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Zhang R, Kim A S, Fox J M, Nair S, Basore K, Klimstra W B, Rimkunas R, Fong R H, Lin H, Poddar S, Crowe J E Jr, Doranz B J, Fremont D H and Diamond M S 2018 Mxra8 is a receptor for multiple arthritogenic alphaviruses Nature 557 570–4

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Joyner M 2009 Integration Marketing (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
McGoron A J, Li C-Z and Lin W-C 2009 25th Southern Biomedical Engineering Conference 2009, 15 – 17 May 2009, Miami, Florida, USA vol 24 (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Jakić B 2014 Galaxy and the New Wave: Yugoslav Computer Culture in the 1980s Hacking Europe: From Computer Cultures to Demoscenes History of Computing ed G Alberts and R Oldenziel (London: Springer) pp 107–28

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics.

Blog post
Andrew D 2017 Mediterranean Diet May Protect Your Brain In Old Age, New Finding Suggests IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2004 Highlights of a GAO Forum: The Federal Government’s Role in Improving Financial Literacy (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jekanowski E C 2017 District Leadership and Systemic Inclusion: A Case Study of One Inclusive and Effective School District Doctoral dissertation (Boca Raton, FL: Florida Atlantic University)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gates A 2017 A Showman, His Stage Life and His Unhappy End New York Times C6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Physics D: Applied Physics
AbbreviationJ. Phys. D Appl. Phys.
ISSN (print)0022-3727
ISSN (online)1361-6463
ScopeElectronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Acoustics and Ultrasonics
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles