How to format your references using the Journal of Photochemistry & Photobiology, A: Chemistry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Photochemistry & Photobiology, A: Chemistry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C.K. Ober, Self-assembly. Persistence pays off, Science. 296 (2002) 859–861.
A journal article with 2 authors
N. Goonetilleke, A.J. McMichael, Immunology. Antigen processing takes a new direction, Science. 340 (2013) 937–938.
A journal article with 3 authors
M.A. Kinney, R. Saeed, T.C. McDevitt, Mesenchymal morphogenesis of embryonic stem cells dynamically modulates the biophysical microtissue niche, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4290.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
G. Suárez, C. Santschi, V.I. Slaveykova, O.J.F. Martin, Sensing the dynamics of oxidative stress using enhanced absorption in protein-loaded random media, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 3447.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
L. Nemethy, Business Exit Planning, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
L. Piergiovanni, Food Packaging Materials, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
J. Duggan, Using System Dynamics and Multiple Objective Optimization to Support Policy Analysis for Complex Systems, in: H. Qudrat-Ullah, J.M. Spector, P.I. Davidsen (Eds.), Complex Decision Making: Theory and Practice, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007: pp. 59–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Photochemistry & Photobiology, A: Chemistry.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Ultracold Molecules Nest Like Russian Dolls, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Telecommunications: National Broadband Plan Reflects the Experiences of Leading Countries, but Implementation Will Be Challenging, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D.M. Gilkes, Multiple modes of Mdmx regulation affect p53 activation, Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Williams, The Sport of Struggle, New York Times. (2017) BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Photochemistry & Photobiology, A: Chemistry
AbbreviationJ. Photochem. Photobiol. A Chem.
ISSN (print)1010-6030
ScopeGeneral Chemical Engineering
General Chemistry
General Physics and Astronomy

Other styles