How to format your references using the Journal of Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kratky C. A coordinated approach is key for open access. Nature 2013;500(7464):503.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bintanja R, van de Wal RSW. North American ice-sheet dynamics and the onset of 100,000-year glacial cycles. Nature 2008;454(7206):869–72.
A journal article with 3 authors
Șenbabaoğlu Y, Michailidis G, Li JZ. Critical limitations of consensus clustering in class discovery. Sci Rep 2014;4:6207.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Alvarez B, Martínez-A C, Burgering BM, Carrera AC. Forkhead transcription factors contribute to execution of the mitotic programme in mammals. Nature 2001;413(6857):744–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hirsch HL. Essential Communication Strategies for Scientists, Engineers, and Technology Professionals. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Zelinka I, Duy VH, Cha J, editors. AETA 2013: Recent Advances in Electrical Engineering and Related Sciences. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Ching W-K, Huang X, Ng MK, Siu T-K. A Hidden Markov Model for Customer Classification. In: Huang X, Ng MK, Siu T-K, editors. Markov Chains: Models, Algorithms and Applications. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2013. page 97–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Turning Atmospheric CO2 Into Carbon Nanofibers Could Reduce Global Warming [Internet]. IFLScience2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. DOD Satellite Control. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Potter RH. Diffusion of oxygen and lithium isotopes at a contact between the Bushveld Complex and metasedimentary rock: Implications for the timescale of Phepane Dome diapirism. 2009;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B. Moscow Never Sleeps. New York Times2017;C9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics
AbbreviationJ. Pharmacol. Pharmacother.
ISSN (print)0976-500X
ISSN (online)0976-5018
ScopePharmacology (medical)

Other styles