How to format your references using the Journal of Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Myneni SCB. Formation of stable chlorinated hydrocarbons in weathering plant material. Science 2002;295(5557):1039–41.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stocker R, Durham WM. Microbiology. Tumbling for stealth? Science 2009;325(5939):400–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
McKee RA, Walker FJ, Chisholm MF. Physical structure and inversion charge at a semiconductor interface with a crystalline oxide. Science 2001;293(5529):468–71.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Amrani N, Ganesan R, Kervestin S, Mangus DA, Ghosh S, Jacobson A. A faux 3’-UTR promotes aberrant termination and triggers nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Nature 2004;432(7013):112–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barnes E. Atlas of Developmental Field Anomalies of the Human Skeleton. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Kleinaltenkamp M, Plinke W, Geiger I, editors. Business Project Management and Marketing: Mastering Business Markets. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Nathanson S. Political Polarization and the Markets vs. Government Debate. In: Cudd AE, Scholz SJ, editors. Philosophical Perspectives on Democracy in the 21st Century. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. page 57–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics.

Blog post
Andrew E. Religious Children Struggle To Separate Fact From Fiction [Internet]. IFLScience2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Surveillance: DOD and NASA Need Consolidated Requirements and a Coordinated Plan. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nuñez EM. Getting H.I.P. with First-Generation College Students: Decolonizing the High Impact Practice Movement. 2017;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. On the Home Lawn, Where Alligators Roam. New York Times2006;LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,1].
This sentence cites four references [1,1,1,1].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics
AbbreviationJ. Pharmacol. Pharmacother.
ISSN (print)0976-500X
ISSN (online)0976-5018
ScopePharmacology (medical)

Other styles