How to format your references using the Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology & Strabismus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology & Strabismus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Willis JH. Genetics. Origin of species in overdrive. Science. 2009;323(5912):350-351.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang H-Y, Malbon CC. Wnt signaling, Ca2+, and cyclic GMP: visualizing Frizzled functions. Science. 2003;300(5625):1529-1530.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen M, Wei L, Liu Y. Motor preparation attenuates neural variability and beta-band LFP in parietal cortex. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6809.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mangalassery S, Sjögersten S, Sparkes DL, Sturrock CJ, Craigon J, Mooney SJ. To what extent can zero tillage lead to a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from temperate soils? Sci Rep. 2014;4:4586.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Agung IGN. Cross Section and Experimental Data Analysis Using Eviews. John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
Singh S, Singh M, Apte C, Perner P, eds. Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis: Third International Conference on Advances in Pattern Recognition, ICAPR 2005, Bath, UK, August 22-25, 2005, Proceedings, Part II. Vol 3687. Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Raz AE, Schicktanz S. Making Responsible Life Plans: Cultural Differences in Lay Attitudes in Germany and Israel Towards Predictive Genetic Testing for Late-Onset Diseases. In: Schicktanz S, ed. Comparative Empirical Bioethics: Dilemmas of Genetic Testing and Euthanasia in Israel and Germany. SpringerBriefs in Ethics. Springer International Publishing; 2016:55-66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology & Strabismus.

Blog post
Andrew E. Algae Virus Can Infect Humans And Slow Brain Activity. IFLScience. Published October 28, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. A Long-Term Plan Is Needed To Guide DOE and Multiprogram Laboratory Research and Development Activities. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1984.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Glasgow HL. Design and Selection of Probes for In Vivo Molecular Targeting and Imaging. Published online 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Belson K, Shpigel B. Supersized Payback Is in Sight. New York Times. January 19, 2017:SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Pediatric Ophthalmology & Strabismus
AbbreviationJ. Pediatr. Ophthalmol. Strabismus
ISSN (print)0191-3913
ISSN (online)1938-2405
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Other styles