How to format your references using the Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology & Strabismus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology & Strabismus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Visbeck M. Oceanography: power of pull. Nature. 2007;447(7143):383.
A journal article with 2 authors
Keller CB, Schoene B. Statistical geochemistry reveals disruption in secular lithospheric evolution about 2.5 Gyr ago. Nature. 2012;485(7399):490-493.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cacace F, de Petris G, Troiani A. Experimental detection of tetranitrogen. Science. 2002;295(5554):480-481.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Weber T, Giessen H, Weckenbrock M, et al. Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization. Nature. 2000;405(6787):658-661.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sarker DK. Pharmaceutical Emulsions. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Cerny E. SVA: The Power of Assertions in SystemVerilog. 2nd ed. 2015. (Dudani S, Havlicek J, Korchemny D, eds.). Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Hollander Y. Is Verification Getting Too Complex? In: Chockler H, Hu AJ, eds. Hardware and Software: Verification and Testing: 4th International Haifa Verification Conference, HVC 2008, Haifa, Israel, October 27-30, 2008. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer; 2009:4-4.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology & Strabismus.

Blog post
Andrew E. Scientists Are Deep Sea Drilling To Learn More About Earthquakes And Tsunamis. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Direct Student Loan Savings. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Addington LM. Students’ Preferences for Information Sources during the Undergraduate College Search Process: The Influence of Technology. Published online 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt LF. Hempstead Board Rejects Belmont Park Flea Market. New York Times. February 11, 2007:14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Pediatric Ophthalmology & Strabismus
AbbreviationJ. Pediatr. Ophthalmol. Strabismus
ISSN (print)0191-3913
ISSN (online)1938-2405
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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