How to format your references using the Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology & Strabismus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology & Strabismus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Narbonne GM. Geochemistry. Ocean chemistry and early animals. Science. 2010;328(5974):53-54.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lamb S, Davis P. Cenozoic climate change as a possible cause for the rise of the Andes. Nature. 2003;425(6960):792-797.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li B, Yu Z-H, Fei S-M. Geometry of quantum computation with qutrits. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2594.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Roy R, Kozlov AG, Lohman TM, Ha T. SSB protein diffusion on single-stranded DNA stimulates RecA filament formation. Nature. 2009;461(7267):1092-1097.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Blevins RD. Formulas for Dynamics, Acoustics and Vibration. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Sasaki K, Suzuki O, Takahashi N, eds. Interface Oral Health Science 2014: Innovative Research on Biosis-Abiosis Intelligent Interface. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Revaud J, Lavoue G, Ariki Y, Baskurt A. Task-Specific Salience for Object Recognition. In: Kwaśnicka H, Jain LC, eds. Innovations in Intelligent Image Analysis. Studies in Computational Intelligence. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011:59-85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology & Strabismus.

Blog post
Andrew E. NASA’s Reliance on Outsourcing Launches Causes a Dilemma for the Space Agency. IFLScience. Published July 3, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Managing Technology: Best Practices Can Improve Performance and Produce Results. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Koenig WE. Leadership for the whole in the mythic field of C. G. Jung’s unconscious processes. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik J. It’s That ’80s Show. New York Times. October 10, 2017:C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Pediatric Ophthalmology & Strabismus
AbbreviationJ. Pediatr. Ophthalmol. Strabismus
ISSN (print)0191-3913
ISSN (online)1938-2405
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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