How to format your references using the Journal of Patient Safety & Infection Control citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Patient Safety & Infection Control. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
FitzGerald GA. BIOMEDICINE. Bringing PGE₂ in from the cold. Science. 2015;348(6240):1208-1209.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jones PA, Takai D. The role of DNA methylation in mammalian epigenetics. Science. 2001;293(5532):1068-1070.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gurley KA, Rink JC, Sánchez Alvarado A. Beta-catenin defines head versus tail identity during planarian regeneration and homeostasis. Science. 2008;319(5861):323-327.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kang Z, Yuan J, Zhang X, et al. CMOS-compatible 2-bit optical spectral quantization scheme using a silicon-nanocrystal-based horizontal slot waveguide. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7177.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Davison M. Pharmaceutical Anti-Counterfeiting. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Gutwirth S, Poullet Y, De Hert P, Leenes R, eds. Computers, Privacy and Data Protection: An Element of Choice. Springer Netherlands; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Kniesel G. Detection and Resolution of Weaving Interactions. In: Rashid A, Ossher H, eds. Transactions on Aspect-Oriented Software Development V. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer; 2009:135-186.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Patient Safety & Infection Control.

Blog post
Andrew D. Science-Backed Ways To Improve Your Wi-Fi Signal At Home. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Highway Safety: Preliminary Observations on Efforts to Implement Changes in the Highway Safety Improvement Program Since SAFETEA-LU. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Samel C. Imagination and negotiation: Motivations for Cambodian women to marry Cambodian American men. Published online 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Robertson C, Walsh MW, Cooper M. Bankruptcy Rarely Offers Easy Answer For Counties. New York Times. November 11, 2011:A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Patient Safety & Infection Control
ISSN (print)2214-207X

Other styles