How to format your references using the Journal of Patient Safety & Infection Control citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Patient Safety & Infection Control. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Davies K. Keep the directive that protects research animals. Nature. 2015;521(7550):7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Toyoshima C, Nomura H. Structural changes in the calcium pump accompanying the dissociation of calcium. Nature. 2002;418(6898):605-611.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang K, Mittler JE, Samudrala R. Comment on “Evidence for positive epistasis in HIV-1.” Science. 2006;312(5775):848; author reply 848.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chao C-T, Lee S-Y, Yang W-S, et al. Serum vitamin D levels are positively associated with varicella zoster immunity in chronic dialysis patients. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7371.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Banks RE, Sharp JM, Doss SD, Vanderford DA. Exotic Small Mammal Care and Husbandry. Ames, Iowa, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Lipton AM. The Common Sense Guide to Dementia For Clinicians and Caregivers. (Marshall CD, ed.). New York, NY: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Schwarzbach AE, Tomlinson PB. Anisophylleaceae. In: Kubitzki K, ed. Flowering Plants. Eudicots: Sapindales, Cucurbitales, Myrtaceae. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011:51-55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Patient Safety & Infection Control.

Blog post
Fang J. Astronomers Have Mapped Our Adolescent Universe in 3D. IFLScience. Published October 24, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. GAO Work Related to ESEA of 1965. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mardakhanian A. Blended CME, Inc. A business plan. 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ruiz RR. Sharapova Suspension Is Cut by Nine Months. New York Times. October 5, 2016:B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Patient Safety & Infection Control
ISSN (print)2214-207X

Other styles