How to format your references using the Journal of Patient Safety & Infection Control citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Patient Safety & Infection Control. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grayson M. Physics masterclass. Nature. 2012;490(7419):S1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Burrows M, Sutton G. Interacting gears synchronize propulsive leg movements in a jumping insect. Science. 2013;341(6151):1254-1256.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rockman MV, Skrovanek SS, Kruglyak L. Selection at linked sites shapes heritable phenotypic variation in C. elegans. Science. 2010;330(6002):372-376.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bugoslavsky Y, Cohen LF, Perkins GK, et al. Enhancement of the high-magnetic-field critical current density of superconducting MgB2 by proton irradiation. Nature. 2001;411(6837):561-563.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Flood JM. Wiley Gaap 2015. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Khoshnevisan D. From Lévy-Type Processes to Parabolic SPDEs. (Schilling R, Utzet F, Quer-Sardanyons L, eds.). Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Grannell C, Sumner V, Synodinos D. Working With Images. In: Sumner V, Synodinos D, eds. The Essential Guide to HTML5 and CSS3 Web Design. Apress; 2012:119-144.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Patient Safety & Infection Control.

Blog post
Andrew E. There Is Still A Glimmer of Hope for Jade Rabbit. IFLScience. Published February 12, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: GSA Has Made Progress in Planning Governmentwide Program but Challenges Remain. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
DeRose CT. Electro-optic polymers: Materials and devices. Published online 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Informal Mets Stroll Toward The Season. New York Times. March 2, 2010:B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Patient Safety & Infection Control
ISSN (print)2214-207X

Other styles