How to format your references using the Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy (JOSPT). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lerner RA. Retrospective. R. Bruce Merrifield (1921-2006). Science. 2006;313(5783):57.
A journal article with 2 authors
Levitt SD, List JA. Economics. Homo economicus evolves. Science. 2008;319(5865):909-910.
A journal article with 3 authors
Blüher M, Kahn BB, Kahn CR. Extended longevity in mice lacking the insulin receptor in adipose tissue. Science. 2003;299(5606):572-574.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Safina C, Rosenberg AA, Myers RA, Quinn TJ 2nd, Collie JS. Oceans. U.S. ocean fish recovery: staying the course. Science. 2005;309(5735):707-708.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gaffney S, Francis C. Honesty Sells. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
Choi S, ed. Encyclopedia of Signaling Molecules. Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Huchet J-F. From Dirigisme to Realism: Chinese Industrial Policy in the Era of Globalisation. In: Richet X, Delteil V, Dieuaide P, eds. Strategies of Multinational Corporations and Social Regulations: European and Asian Perspectives. Springer; 2014:57-76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Arecibo Improves On The Measurement Of The Fine Structure Constant. IFLScience. Published January 6, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Efforts to Assist the Homeless in Seattle. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shah SK. Data Transmission Using Image Steganography in Quick Response (QR) Code. Published online 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Novick SM. When the Brew Is as Crucial as the Bean. New York Times. March 29, 2015:LI8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 4–6,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy
AbbreviationJ. Orthop. Sports Phys. Ther.
ISSN (print)0190-6011
ISSN (online)1938-1344
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles