How to format your references using the Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy (JOSPT). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zolla-Pazner S. A critical question for HIV vaccine development: which antibodies to induce? Science. 2014;345(6193):167-168.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shin H, Iwasaki A. A vaccine strategy that protects against genital herpes by establishing local memory T cells. Nature. 2012;491(7424):463-467.
A journal article with 3 authors
Poulsen CJ, Tabor C, White JD. CLIMATE CHANGE. Long-term climate forcing by atmospheric oxygen concentrations. Science. 2015;348(6240):1238-1241.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Fairman ME, Maroney PA, Wang W, et al. Protein displacement by DExH/D “RNA helicases” without duplex unwinding. Science. 2004;304(5671):730-734.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paolella MS. Fundamental Probability. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
Feldmeyer D, Lübke JHR, eds. New Aspects of Axonal Structure and Function. Springer US; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Nelson A. XML Conversion of the Windows Registry for Forensic Processing and Distribution. In: Peterson G, Shenoi S, eds. Advances in Digital Forensics VIII: 8th IFIP WG 11.9 International Conference on Digital Forensics, Pretoria, South Africa, January 3-5, 2012, Revised Selected Papers. IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology. Springer; 2012:51-65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy.

Blog post
Andrew E. Why Do Honey Bees Make Hexagonal Honeycomb? IFLScience. Published July 21, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Estimated Costs, Planned Uses of Emergency Funding, and Future Implications. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Martin RL. Development of a Nutrition Program with Emphasis on Use of Social Media for Middle School Students. Published online 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines GG. A Showrunner’s Geek Heaven. New York Times. October 3, 2016:D11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 3,4.
This sentence cites four references 5–8.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy
AbbreviationJ. Orthop. Sports Phys. Ther.
ISSN (print)0190-6011
ISSN (online)1938-1344
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles