How to format your references using the Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy (JOSPT). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Benzi R. Physics. Getting a grip on turbulence. Science. 2003;301(5633):605-606.
A journal article with 2 authors
Burgisser A, Bergantz GW. A rapid mechanism to remobilize and homogenize highly crystalline magma bodies. Nature. 2011;471(7337):212-215.
A journal article with 3 authors
Holland RA, Wikelski M, Wilcove DS. How and why do insects migrate? Science. 2006;313(5788):794-796.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kim MH, Shen L, Tao H, Martinez TJ, Suits AG. Conformationally controlled chemistry: excited-state dynamics dictate ground-state reaction. Science. 2007;315(5818):1561-1565.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Meyer VR. Pitfalls and Errors of HPLC in Pictures. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2013.
An edited book
Pommier Y, ed. DNA Topoisomerases and Cancer. 1st ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Molchan G. Space—Time Earthquake Prediction: The Error Diagrams. In: Savage MK, Rhoades DA, Smith EGC, Gerstenberger MC, Vere-Jones D, eds. Seismogenesis and Earthquake Forecasting: The Frank Evison Volume II. Basel: Springer; 2010:53-63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy.

Blog post
Fang J. Simple tree branch filter makes dirty water drinkable. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Disbursing Transactions, Naval Ship Research and Development Laboratory. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1971.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yamada M. The role of the TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE2 (TIR2) gene in auxin synthesis in Arabidopsis. 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Corkery M, Walsh MW. Treasury Considers Plan to Help Puerto Rico. New York Times. October 15, 2015:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 2,4,6,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy
AbbreviationJ. Orthop. Sports Phys. Ther.
ISSN (print)0190-6011
ISSN (online)1938-1344
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles