How to format your references using the Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sardar, Z. (2007). Beyond the troubled relationship. Nature, 448(7150), 131–133.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lardner, B., & bin Lakim, M. (2002). Animal communication: tree-hole frogs exploit resonance effects. Nature, 420(6915), 475.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lapointe, C. P., Mason, T. G., & Smalyukh, I. I. (2009). Shape-controlled colloidal interactions in nematic liquid crystals. Science (New York, N.Y.), 326(5956), 1083–1086.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Skop, A. R., Liu, H., Yates, J., 3rd, Meyer, B. J., & Heald, R. (2004). Dissection of the mammalian midbody proteome reveals conserved cytokinesis mechanisms. Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5680), 61–66.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mubarak, S. (2010). Construction Project Scheduling and Control. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lendeckel, U., & Hooper, N. M. (Eds.). (2006). Proteases in Gastrointestinal Tissues (Vol. 5). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Lapidus, M. L., & van Frankenhuijsen, M. (2013). Explicit Formulas for Generalized Fractal Strings. In M. van Frankenhuijsen (Ed.), Fractal Geometry, Complex Dimensions and Zeta Functions: Geometry and Spectra of Fractal Strings (pp. 137–178). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, April 8). Parents Don’t Cause Autism, But They Can Make A Difference. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1986). Status of the Marine Corps Integrated Fire and Air Support System (No. NSIAD-86-111FS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Valeika, S. R. (2008). The epidemiology of varicella under a two -dose vaccination strategy: Results of a mathematical transmission model with a novel strategy of sensitivity analysis (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lohr, S., & Alderman, L. (2017, May 15). The Fallout From a Global Cyberattack: ‘A Battle We’re Fighting Every Day.’ New York Times, p. A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sardar 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Lardner and bin Lakim 2002; Sardar 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lardner and bin Lakim 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Skop et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity
AbbreviationJ. Open Innov.
ISSN (online)2199-8531

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