How to format your references using the Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Oster, G. (2002). Brownian ratchets: Darwin’s motors. Nature, 417(6884), 25.
A journal article with 2 authors
Teotónio, H., & Rose, M. R. (2000). Variation in the reversibility of evolution. Nature, 408(6811), 463–466.
A journal article with 3 authors
Walsh, J. P., Cohen, W. M., & Arora, A. (2003). Science and the law. Working through the patent problem. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5609), 1021.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Bowler, J. M., Johnston, H., Olley, J. M., Prescott, J. R., Roberts, R. G., Shawcross, W., & Spooner, N. A. (2003). New ages for human occupation and climatic change at Lake Mungo, Australia. Nature, 421(6925), 837–840.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hansen, K. L., & Zenobia, K. E. (2011). Civil Engineer’s Handbook of Professional Practice. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Condon, A., Harel, D., Kok, J. N., Salomaa, A., & Winfree, E. (Eds.). (2009). Algorithmic Bioprocesses. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Liénard, E., Ban, G., Blieck, J., Durand, D., Duval, F., Fléchard, X., et al. (2007). The LPCTrap experiment: measurement of the β-ν angular correlation in 6He using a transparent Paul trap. In J. Dilling, M. Comyn, J. Thompson, & G. Gwinner (Eds.), TCP 2006: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Trapped Charged Particles and Fundamental Physics (TCP 2006) held in Parksville, Canada, 3–8 September, 2006 (pp. 29–33). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, April 22). Weight Loss Drug Made From War Chemicals Gets Deadly New Reach Online. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2012). Maritime Security: Progress and Challenges 10 Years after the Maritime Transportation Security Act (No. GAO-12-1009T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Olson, B. A. (2012). Problem Management: A System Engineering Management Framework (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, D. A. (2006, February 19). Overseas, the Shock of the Surcharge. New York Times, p. 56.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Oster 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Oster 2002; Teotónio and Rose 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Teotónio and Rose 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Bowler et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity
AbbreviationJ. Open Innov.
ISSN (online)2199-8531

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