How to format your references using the Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cortada, X. (2011). Genome-sequencing anniversary. Painting the genome for the public. Science (New York, N.Y.), 331(6017), 548.
A journal article with 2 authors
Eichler, E. E., & Sankoff, D. (2003). Structural dynamics of eukaryotic chromosome evolution. Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5634), 793–797.
A journal article with 3 authors
Araki, H., Cooper, B., & Blouin, M. S. (2007). Genetic effects of captive breeding cause a rapid, cumulative fitness decline in the wild. Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5847), 100–103.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Harris, W. M., Lombardo, J. J., Nelson, G. J., Lai, B., Wang, S., Vila-Comamala, J., et al. (2014). Three-dimensional microstructural imaging of sulfur poisoning-induced degradation in a Ni-YSZ anode of solid oxide fuel cells. Scientific reports, 4, 5246.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kazemi, G. A., Lehr, J. H., & Perrochet, P. (2006). Groundwater Age. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Koskinen, U. (Ed.). (2016). Aggressive and Violent Peasant Elites in the Nordic Countries, C. 1500-1700. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Vacha-Haase, T., Donaldson, W. V., & Foster, A. (2014). Race-Ethnicity and Gender in Older Adults. In M. L. Miville & A. D. Ferguson (Eds.), Handbook of Race-Ethnicity and Gender in Psychology (pp. 65–83). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, December 9). Seven Sperm Whales Mysteriously Found Dead On Australian Beach. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1988). Bridge Safety: Structural Soundness of the Zilwaukee Bridge (No. RCED-88-96). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Little, J. L. (2014). The effects of a financial literacy intervention on teachers’ financial literacy, awareness, and advocacy (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara, S. (2014, June 29). Exploring the Continuity of the Radical. New York Times, p. WE9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cortada 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Cortada 2011; Eichler and Sankoff 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Eichler and Sankoff 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Harris et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity
AbbreviationJ. Open Innov.
ISSN (online)2199-8531

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