How to format your references using the Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Schorghofer N: Dynamics of ice ages on Mars. Nature 449:192–194, 2007
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Kiel S, Little CTS: Cold-seep mollusks are older than the general marine mollusk fauna. Science 313:1429–1431, 2006
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Miyazawa A, Fujiyoshi Y, Unwin N: Structure and gating mechanism of the acetylcholine receptor pore. Nature 423:949–955, 2003
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Al-Olayan EM, Beetsma AL, Butcher GA, Sinden RE, Hurd H: Complete development of mosquito phases of the malaria parasite in vitro. Science 295:677–679, 2002

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Moskowitz HR, Muñoz AM, Gacula MC Jr: Viewpoints and Controversies in Sensory Science and Consumer Product Testing. Trumbull, Connecticut, USA: Food & Nutrition Press, Inc., 2008
An edited book
1.
Reed BM (ed): Plant Cryopreservation: A Practical Guide. New York, NY: Springer, 2008
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Li X, Mao Y: Graphs with Given Generalized Connectivity, in Mao Y (ed): Generalized Connectivity of Graphs, SpringerBriefs in Mathematics. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp 59–66

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine.

Blog post
1.
Fang J: Bluebirds Shout Their Songs When it Gets Noisy. IFLScience:2015 Available: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/bluebirds-shout-their-songs-when-it-gets-noisy/. Accessed 30 October 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office: Problems Associated With D.C. Public Schools Payroll Reporting System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1976

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Spindel SA: Evaluation of optical sensor platforms for multiplexed detection of proteins. 2014

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
(nyt) SK: World Briefing | Asia: China And Russia Plan First Joint Military Exercise. New York Times:A6, 2004

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 3,4.
This sentence cites four references 4,6–8.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Neurosurgery: Spine
AbbreviationJ. Neurosurg. Spine
ISSN (print)1547-5654
ISSN (online)1547-5646
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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