How to format your references using the Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Burkov A: PHYSICS. Chiral anomaly without relativity. Science 350:378–379, 2015
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Bartek J, Lukas J: Cell biology. The stress of finding NEMO. Science 311:1110–1111, 2006
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Vogelstein B, Alberts B, Shine K: Genetics. Please don’t call it cloning! Science 295:1237, 2002
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Klass K-D, Zompro O, Kristensen NP, Adis J: Mantophasmatodea: a new insect order with extant members in the Afrotropics. Science 296:1456–1459, 2002

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Petrucelli JR: Detecting Fraud in Organizations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2013
An edited book
1.
Robertson MM (ed): Ergonomics and Health Aspects of Work with Computers: International Conference, EHAWC 2011, Held as Part of HCI International 2011, Orlando, FL, USA, July 9-14, 2011. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2011
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Serra J: Grain Building Ordering, in Soille P , Pesaresi M , Ouzounis GK (eds): Mathematical Morphology and Its Applications to Image and Signal Processing: 10th International Symposium, ISMM 2011, Verbania-Intra, Italy, July 6-8, 2011. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2011, pp 37–48

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine.

Blog post
1.
O`Callaghan J: First Ever Detection Of Lithium From Nova Could Solve Cosmic Conundrum. IFLScience:2015 Available: https://www.iflscience.com/space/embargo-29-july-11am-bst-first-ever-detection-lithium-nova-could-solve-cosmic-conundrum/. Accessed 30 October 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office: Electronic Surveillance. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1994

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Cuellar D: Impact of boring insects on the reproductive success of Hesperoyucca whipplei (Our Lord’s candle). 2011

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Widdicombe B: Diamonds (and Other Gems) That Are Forever. New York Times:D10, 2016

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 3,4.
This sentence cites four references 3,4,7,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Neurosurgery: Spine
AbbreviationJ. Neurosurg. Spine
ISSN (print)1547-5654
ISSN (online)1547-5646
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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