How to format your references using the Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gavaghan H: New UK legislation aids fight against discrimination. Nature 405:716–717, 2000
A journal article with 2 authors
Corcoran AJ, Conner WE: Bats jamming bats: food competition through sonar interference. Science 346:745–747, 2014
A journal article with 3 authors
Rosenthal Y, Linsley BK, Oppo DW: Pacific Ocean heat content during the past 10,000 years. Science 342:617–621, 2013
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yu Y-C, Bultje RS, Wang X, Shi S-H: Specific synapses develop preferentially among sister excitatory neurons in the neocortex. Nature 458:501–504, 2009

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith CL: Advanced Process Control. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2010
An edited book
Kalmykov SN, Denecke MA (eds): Actinide Nanoparticle Research. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2011
A chapter in an edited book
Deisenhofer J, Lemmens P: Optical Techniques for Systems with Competing Interactions, in Lacroix C , Mendels P , Mila F (eds): Introduction to Frustrated Magnetism: Materials, Experiments, Theory, Springer Series in Solid-State Sciences. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2011, pp 107–128

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine.

Blog post
Andrew D: It’s Time To Wake Up To The Devastating Impact Flying Has On The Environment. IFLScience:2017 Available: Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Opinion on the Legality of the Scheduled Transfer of Administrative Responsibility for Certain Law Enforcement Education Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1980

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Crossman DC: The impact of safety culture on worker motivation and the economic bottom line. 2008

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K: QUICK BITE: Cranford; Cranford Didn’t Get the Olympics, Either. New York Times:14NJ13, 2005

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 3,4.
This sentence cites four references 3,4,6,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Neurosurgery: Spine
AbbreviationJ. Neurosurg. Spine
ISSN (print)1547-5654
ISSN (online)1547-5646
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles