How to format your references using the Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Atkinson QD: Phonemic diversity supports a serial founder effect model of language expansion from Africa. Science 332:346–349, 2011
A journal article with 2 authors
Seelig JD, Jayaraman V: Neural dynamics for landmark orientation and angular path integration. Nature 521:186–191, 2015
A journal article with 3 authors
Elf J, Li G-W, Xie XS: Probing transcription factor dynamics at the single-molecule level in a living cell. Science 316:1191–1194, 2007
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Boudaoud A, Patrício P, Couder Y, Amar MB: Dynamics of singularities in a constrained elastic plate. Nature 407:718–720, 2000

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hammes GG: Spectroscopy for the Biological Sciences. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005
An edited book
Nakatani K, Tor Y (eds): Modified Nucleic Acids. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016
A chapter in an edited book
Arnoldi K: The Monofixation Syndrome: New Considerations on Pathophysiology, in Lorenz B , Brodsky MC (eds): Pediatric Ophthalmology, Neuro-Ophthalmology, Genetics: Strabismus - New Concepts in Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment, Essentials in Ophthalmology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2010, pp 33–40

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics.

Blog post
Hale T: The World’s First Wi-Fi Pavement Is Being Piloted In The UK. IFLScience:2015 Available: Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Farm Program Modernization: Farm Service Agency Needs to Demonstrate the Capacity to Manage IT Initiatives. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2015

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Di Giacomo FA: Education amidst transition: The case of Romania. 2010

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chapman MM: Fiat Chrysler Union Contract Faces Hurdles. New York Times:B5, 2015

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 2,6–8.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics
AbbreviationJ. Neurosurg. Pediatr.
ISSN (print)1933-0707
ISSN (online)1933-0715
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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