How to format your references using the Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Busse FH. Physics. Visualizing the dynamics of the onset of turbulence. Science. 2004;305(5690):1574-1575.
A journal article with 2 authors
Walker MJ, Beatson SA. Epidemiology. Outsmarting outbreaks. Science. 2012;338(6111):1161-1162.
A journal article with 3 authors
Goldreich P, Lithwick Y, Sari R. Formation of Kuiper-belt binaries by dynamical friction and three-body encounters. Nature. 2002;420(6916):643-646.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Schoups A, Vogels R, Qian N, Orban G. Practising orientation identification improves orientation coding in V1 neurons. Nature. 2001;412(6846):549-553.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morris SA. Food and Package Engineering. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
Cohen I. Noise Reduction in Speech Processing. Vol 2. (Huang Y, Chen J, Benesty J, eds.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
El-Meliegy E, van Noort R. Theoretical Estimation of Glass Properties. In: Noort R van, ed. Glasses and Glass Ceramics for Medical Applications. New York, NY: Springer; 2012:79-93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health.

Blog post
Andrew E. How Much Does Thor’s Hammer Weigh? IFLScience.’s-hammer-weigh/. Published August 19, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Navigation Planning: Need for a New Direction. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gibson JJ. An Assessment of Factors Relating to High School Students’ Science Self-Efficacy. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Antilla S. Fund Settlement. New York Times. September 22, 2015:B7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Midwifery & Women's Health
AbbreviationJ. Midwifery Womens. Health
ISSN (print)1526-9523
ISSN (online)1542-2011
ScopeObstetrics and Gynaecology
Maternity and Midwifery

Other styles