How to format your references using the Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Myers EG. Fundamental constants: The teamwork of precision. Nature. 2014;506(7489):440-441.
A journal article with 2 authors
Grewal SIS, Elgin SCR. Transcription and RNA interference in the formation of heterochromatin. Nature. 2007;447(7143):399-406.
A journal article with 3 authors
Padture NP, Gell M, Jordan EH. Thermal barrier coatings for gas-turbine engine applications. Science. 2002;296(5566):280-284.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hernandez LD, Hueffer K, Wenk MR, Galán JE. Salmonella modulates vesicular traffic by altering phosphoinositide metabolism. Science. 2004;304(5678):1805-1807.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. Guidelines for Safe Process Operations and Maintenance. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1995.
An edited book
Allen CR, Garmestani AS, eds. Adaptive Management of Social-Ecological Systems. Springer Netherlands; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Muijs D, Ainscow M, Chapman C, West M. Societal Theories of Networking and Collaboration. In: Ainscow M, Chapman C, West M, eds. Collaboration and Networking in Education. Springer Netherlands; 2011:29-36.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health.

Blog post
Andrews R. Sound Waves Can Now Be Used To Hack Into Smartphones. IFLScience. Published March 15, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control: Status of FAA’s Modernization Program. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Contreras AG. A reproductive health program for the Latino adolescent community: A grant proposal. Published online 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW, Story L. Seeking Business, States Loosen Insurance Rules. New York Times. May 9, 2011:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Midwifery & Women's Health
AbbreviationJ. Midwifery Womens. Health
ISSN (print)1526-9523
ISSN (online)1542-2011
ScopeObstetrics and Gynaecology
Maternity and Midwifery

Other styles