How to format your references using the Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bollinger JM Jr. Biochemistry. Electron relay in proteins. Science. 2008;320(5884):1730-1731.
A journal article with 2 authors
Matsumoto M, Hikosaka O. Two types of dopamine neuron distinctly convey positive and negative motivational signals. Nature. 2009;459(7248):837-841.
A journal article with 3 authors
Melchor RN, De Valais S, Genise JF. Bird-like fossil footprints from the Late Triassic. Nature. 2002;417(6892):936-938.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Saparov B, Cantoni C, Pan M, et al. Complex structures of different CaFe2As2 samples. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4120.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Radwanska M, Stankiewicz A, Wosatko A, Pamin J. Plate and Shell Structures. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
Clemmensen T, Campos P, Orngreen R, Pejtersen AM, Wong W, eds. Human Work Interaction Design: Designing for Human Work: The First IFIP TC 13.6 WG Conference: Designing for Human Work, February 13–15, 2006, Madeira, Portugal. Vol 221. Springer US; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Baker NL, Mason JL. Gender Issues in Psychological Testing of Personality and Abilities. In: Chrisler JC, McCreary DR, eds. Handbook of Gender Research in Psychology: Volume 2: Gender Research in Social and Applied Psychology. Springer; 2010:63-88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health.

Blog post
Andrew E. Why Human Head Transplants Are Still A Long Way From Becoming A Reality. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Stafford Student Loan Program: Correspondence Schools’ Loan Volume Declines Sharply. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tetley J. An investigation of self-authorship, hope, and meaning in life among second-year college students. Published online 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland J. The Blink of an Eye. New York Times. March 31, 2017:MB7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Midwifery & Women's Health
AbbreviationJ. Midwifery Womens. Health
ISSN (print)1526-9523
ISSN (online)1542-2011
ScopeObstetrics and Gynaecology
Maternity and Midwifery

Other styles