How to format your references using the Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education (JMBE). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Andelman SJ. 2011. Conservation science outside the comfort zone. Nature 475:290–291.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rappuoli R, Covacci A. 2003. Reverse vaccinology and genomics. Science 302:602.
A journal article with 3 authors
Huo C, Ouyang J, Yang H. 2014. CuO nanoparticles encapsulated inside Al-MCM-41 mesoporous materials via direct synthetic route. Sci Rep 4:3682.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Brown M, Bristow R, Glazer P, Hill R, McBride W, McKenna G, Muschel R. 2003. Comment on “Tumor response to radiotherapy regulated by endothelial cell apoptosis” (II). Science 302:1894; author reply 1894.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Donald H, Robert D. G. 2006. Longitudinal Data Analysis: Hedeker/Longitudinal. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Vidojkovic V. 2008. Adaptive Multi-Standard RF Front-Ends. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Weyh A. 2006. What Characterizes Successful Start-Up Cohorts?, p. 61–74. In Fritsch, M, Schmude, J (eds.), Entrepreneurship in the Region. Springer US, Boston, MA.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. 2015. Killer Whales Surprise Kayakers. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1971. Need To Remove More Low-Cost, Low-Usage Items From Inventories. B-133118. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Frederiksen MD. 2013. Engaging physicians to support corporate compliance programs: A grounded theory study. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams J. 2017. The Head Honcho’s Head Honcho. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Microbiology & Biology Education
AbbreviationJ. Microbiol. Biol. Educ.
ISSN (print)1935-7877
ISSN (online)1935-7885

Other styles