How to format your references using the Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education (JMBE). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hong W. 2013. Science & SciLifeLab Prize. Assembly of a neural circuit. Science 342:1186.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tulaczyk S, Hossainzadeh S. 2011. Geochemistry. Antarctica’s deep frozen “lakes.” Science 331:1524–1525.
A journal article with 3 authors
Aubert J, Finlay CC, Fournier A. 2013. Bottom-up control of geomagnetic secular variation by the Earth’s inner core. Nature 502:219–223.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pezzoli M, Elhamdani A, Camacho S, Meystre J, González SM, le Coutre J, Markram H. 2014. Dampened neural activity and abolition of epileptic-like activity in cortical slices by active ingredients of spices. Sci Rep 4:6825.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Malpass DB. 2010. Introduction to Industrial Polyethylene. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
2012. Technological Innovations in Major World Oil Crops, Volume 2: Perspectives. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Gaxiola F, Melin P, Valdez F. 2014. Neural Network with Fuzzy Weights Using Type-1 and Type-2 Fuzzy Learning with Gaussian Membership Functions, p. 51–65. In Castillo, O, Melin, P, Pedrycz, W, Kacprzyk, J (eds.), Recent Advances on Hybrid Approaches for Designing Intelligent Systems. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education.

Blog post
Andrew D. 2017. San Francisco Biohackers Are Wearing Implants Made For Diabetes In The Pursuit Of “Human Enhancement.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1993. High-Speed Ground Transportation: Issues Affecting Development in the United States. RCED-94-29. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zivkovic O. 2010. Ternary nanomaterials: Synthesis by alkalide reduction and characterization. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly SR. 2012. Good Neighbors, Bad Border. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Microbiology & Biology Education
AbbreviationJ. Microbiol. Biol. Educ.
ISSN (print)1935-7877
ISSN (online)1935-7885

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