How to format your references using the Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education (JMBE). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Udem T. 2005. Chemistry. Short and sharp-spectroscopy with frequency combs. Science 307:364–365.
A journal article with 2 authors
Punnoose A, Finkel’stein AM. 2005. Metal-insulator transition in disordered two-dimensional electron systems. Science 310:289–291.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mizukami T, Wallis SR, Yamamoto J. 2004. Natural examples of olivine lattice preferred orientation patterns with a flow-normal a-axis maximum. Nature 427:432–436.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang Z, Benoit G, Liu J, Prasad S, Aarnisalo P, Liu X, Xu H, Walker NPC, Perlmann T. 2003. Structure and function of Nurr1 identifies a class of ligand-independent nuclear receptors. Nature 423:555–560.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alberty RA. 2006. Biochemical Thermodynamics: Applications of Mathmatica. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Chinesta F. 2007. Advances in Material Forming: Esaform 10 years on. Springer, Paris.
A chapter in an edited book
Koltay P, Ducrée J, Zengerle RD. 2006. Micro-Fluidic Platforms, p. 139–165. In Urban, GA (ed.), BioMEMS. Springer US, Boston, MA.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education.

Blog post
Luntz S. 2015. Galapagos Eruption Threatens Rare Iguanas. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1994. Training Procurement: Weaknesses Identified in NTSB Procurement Practices. OSI-94-20. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Azios M. 2017. The College Experience of Stuttering: An Ethnographic Study. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Barry E, Kishkovsky S. 2012. Russian Turnout Includes Thousands of Eager Election Observers. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Microbiology & Biology Education
AbbreviationJ. Microbiol. Biol. Educ.
ISSN (print)1935-7877
ISSN (online)1935-7885

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