How to format your references using the Journal of Interprofessional Education & Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Interprofessional Education & Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ruttimann J. Cell mates. Nature. 2007;450(7170):756-757.
A journal article with 2 authors
Leibfarth FA, Hawker CJ. Chemistry. Mechanically throwing a reaction into reverse. Science. 2011;333(6049):1582-1583.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zaimi K, Ishak A, Pop I. Boundary layer flow and heat transfer over a nonlinearly permeable stretching/shrinking sheet in a nanofluid. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4404.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Schreiner PR, Reisenauer HP, Pickard FC 4th, et al. Capture of hydroxymethylene and its fast disappearance through tunnelling. Nature. 2008;453(7197):906-909.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Deutsch R. Convergence. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
Bowyer G, Cole A, eds. Selected References in Trauma and Orthopaedics. Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Machnik LK, Ewer J, Erickson J. The Use of Spatial Technology in United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Wilderness Recreation Site Surveys. In: Carver SJ, Fritz S, eds. Mapping Wilderness: Concepts, Techniques and Applications. Springer Netherlands; 2016:55-68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Interprofessional Education & Practice.

Blog post
Andrew E. Chimps And Gorillas Desperately Need Ebola Vaccine Too – Virus Has Wiped Out A Third Of Them. IFLScience. Published January 21, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Intellectual Property: Leadership and Accountability Needed to Strengthen Federal Protection and Enforcement. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kweider NM. Reading comprehension among Arabic Heritage Language Learners and the Simple View of Reading model. Published online 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hamilton JM, Kosar KR. All the President’s Propaganda. New York Times. December 12, 2016:A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Interprofessional Education & Practice
AbbreviationJ. Interprof. Educ. Pract.
ISSN (print)2405-4526

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