How to format your references using the Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions & Money citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions & Money. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bottjer, D.J., 2012. Geochemistry. Life in the Early Triassic ocean. Science 338, 336–337.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cooper, B.G., Goller, F., 2004. Multimodal signals: enhancement and constraint of song motor patterns by visual display. Science 303, 544–546.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wichterle, H., Gifford, D., Mazzoni, E., 2013. Neuroscience. Mapping neuronal diversity one cell at a time. Science 341, 726–727.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chaimanee, Y., Jolly, D., Benammi, M., Tafforeau, P., Duzer, D., Moussa, I., Jaeger, J.-J., 2003. A Middle Miocene hominoid from Thailand and orangutan origins. Nature 422, 61–65.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Blackford, R., 2012. Freedom of Religion and the Secular State. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Peshin, R., Pimentel, D. (Eds.), 2014. Integrated Pest Management: Experiences with Implementation, Global Overview, Vol.4. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Chodkiewicz, H., 2014. Fostering Strategy Use in a Reading-Based Course in EFL Academic Context: Students’ Perspectives, in: Gabryś-Barker, D., Wojtaszek, A. (Eds.), Studying Second Language Acquisition from a Qualitative Perspective, Second Language Learning and Teaching. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 49–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions & Money.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2015. Total Solar Eclipse To Darken Skies Above Europe March 20th [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2011. Statutory Copyright Licensing: Implications of a Phaseout on Access to Television Programming and Consumer Prices Are Unclear (No. GAO-12-75). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gaete, D.O., 2009. Investigation of intuitive eating after intervention measured by the Intuitive Eating Scale (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J., 2017. After Search Of 5 Months, CBS Names New Anchor. New York Times B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bottjer, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Bottjer, 2012; Cooper and Goller, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cooper and Goller, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Chaimanee et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of International Financial Markets, Institutions & Money
ISSN (print)1042-4431
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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