How to format your references using the Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions & Money citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions & Money. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jones, C.W., 2003. Materials science. Zeolites go organic. Science 300, 439–440.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mervis, J., Holden, C., 2004. Great expectations on the job front. Science 304, 1829.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xin, H., Liu, Q., Li, B., 2014. Non-contact fiber-optical trapping of motile bacteria: dynamics observation and energy estimation. Sci. Rep. 4, 6576.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ferraz, G., Nichols, J.D., Hines, J.E., Stouffer, P.C., Bierregaard, R.O., Jr, Lovejoy, T.E., 2007. A large-scale deforestation experiment: effects of patch area and isolation on Amazon birds. Science 315, 238–241.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ghosh, A., Berg, S., 2014. Arrow Pushing in Inorganic Chemistry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Ali, M., Dapoigny, R. (Eds.), 2006. Advances in Applied Artificial Intelligence: 19th International Conference on Industrial, Engineering and Other Applications of Applied Intelligent Systems, IEA/AIE 2006, Annecy, France, June 27-30, 2006. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Kelly, P.F., 2012. Class, Migration, and Identity in a Philippine Village, in: Plüss, C., Chan, K.-B. (Eds.), Living Intersections: Transnational Migrant Identifications in Asia. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 53–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions & Money.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2017. Ridiculously Enormous Alligator Captured On Camera [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2014. Airport Privatization: Limited Interest despite FAA’s Pilot Program (No. GAO-15-42). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Goldner, V.R., 2010. Arizona nurses’ attitudes toward legislated minimum staffing ratios: Impact on the workplace (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chapman, M.M., 2015. U.A.W. Contract With General Motors Is Ratified After Delay. New York Times B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jones, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Jones, 2003; Mervis and Holden, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mervis and Holden, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Ferraz et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of International Financial Markets, Institutions & Money
ISSN (print)1042-4431
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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