How to format your references using the Journal of Intelligent & Robotic Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Intelligent & Robotic Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Taubes, G.: ASTRONOMY: Researchers Get Spectrum Bands. Science. 288, 2107–2109 (2000)
A journal article with 2 authors
Yamazaki, T., Oda, H.: Orbital influence on Earth’s magnetic field: 100,000-year periodicity in inclination. Science. 295, 2435–2438 (2002)
A journal article with 3 authors
Miyamoto, K., Miyake, S., Yamamura, T.: A synthetic glycolipid prevents autoimmune encephalomyelitis by inducing TH2 bias of natural killer T cells. Nature. 413, 531–534 (2001)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lisse, C.M., Christian, D.J., Dennerl, K., Meech, K.J., Petre, R., Weaver, H.A., Wolk, S.J.: Charge exchange-induced X-ray emission from comet C/1999 S4 (LINEAR). Science. 292, 1343–1348 (2001)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shamah, S.: A Currency Options Primer. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK (2004)
An edited book
Saeed, K., Homenda, W. eds: Computer Information Systems and Industrial Management: 15th IFIP TC8 International Conference, CISIM 2016, Vilnius, Lithuania, September 14-16, 2016, Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)
A chapter in an edited book
Ahmadi Behnam, S., Amyot, D.: Evolution of Goal-Driven Pattern Families for Business Process Modeling. In: Babin, G., Stanoevska-Slabeva, K., and Kropf, P. (eds.) E-Technologies: Transformation in a Connected World: 5th International Conference, MCETECH 2011, Les Diablerets, Switzerland, January 23-26, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. pp. 46–61. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2011)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Intelligent & Robotic Systems.

Blog post
Fang, J.: Two Galapagos Islands House The World’s Largest Shark Biomass,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Telecommunications: Challenges to Assessing and Improving Telecommunications for Native Americans on Tribal Lands. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2006)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnson, J.M.: Service learning: Providing the building blocks for a socially responsible nursing role, (2013)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman, J.: A Deep Dive for Living Treasure, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Intelligent & Robotic Systems
AbbreviationJ. Intell. Robot. Syst.
ISSN (print)0921-0296
ISSN (online)1573-0409
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Control and Systems Engineering
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
Mechanical Engineering

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