How to format your references using the Journal of Intelligent & Robotic Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Intelligent & Robotic Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Verma, I.: Then and now. Nature. 436, 478–479 (2005)
A journal article with 2 authors
Fu, H., Cohen, R.E.: Polarization rotation mechanism for ultrahigh electromechanical response in single-crystal piezoelectrics. Nature. 403, 281–283 (2000)
A journal article with 3 authors
Yamashiro, H., Isomura, N., Sakai, K.: Bloom of the cyanobacterium Moorea bouillonii on the gorgonian coral Annella reticulata in Japan. Sci. Rep. 4, 6032 (2014)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Alvarez, H.M., Xue, Y., Robinson, C.D., Canalizo-Hernández, M.A., Marvin, R.G., Kelly, R.A., Mondragón, A., Penner-Hahn, J.E., O’Halloran, T.V.: Tetrathiomolybdate inhibits copper trafficking proteins through metal cluster formation. Science. 327, 331–334 (2010)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety: Tools for Making Acute Risk Decisions. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (1994)
An edited book
Schürr, A., Varró, D., Varró, G. eds: Applications of Graph Transformations with Industrial Relevance: 4th International Symposium, AGTIVE 2011, Budapest, Hungary, October 4-7, 2011, Revised Selected and Invited Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2012)
A chapter in an edited book
Privat, M., Warner, R.: Creating a Data Model. In: Warner, R. (ed.) Pro Core Data for iOS: Data Access and Persistence Engine for iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch. pp. 111–132. Apress, Berkeley, CA (2011)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Intelligent & Robotic Systems.

Blog post
Luntz, S.: New Contraceptive Lasts For Three Months And Protects Against HIV And Pregnancy,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Strong Leadership and Partnerships Needed to Address Risk of Major Disruptions. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1998)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sumi, S.J.: Eco-Hydrology Driven Evaluation of Statistically Downscaled Precipitation CMIP5 Climate Model Simulations over Louisiana, (2015)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Apuzzo, M., Rosenberg, M.: Sessions May Be Asked About Reports of Meeting, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Intelligent & Robotic Systems
AbbreviationJ. Intell. Robot. Syst.
ISSN (print)0921-0296
ISSN (online)1573-0409
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Control and Systems Engineering
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
Mechanical Engineering

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