How to format your references using the Journal of Innovation & Knowledge citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Innovation & Knowledge. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2004). State of the unions. Nature, 428(6986), 965.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brubaker, S. W., & Monack, D. M. (2015). IMMUNOLOGY. Microbial metabolite triggers antimicrobial defense. Science (New York, N.Y.), 348(6240), 1207–1208.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zheng, R.-L., Zhang, H., & Jiang, W.-L. (2014). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha 308G>A polymorphism and risk of rheumatic heart disease: a meta-analysis. Scientific Reports, 4, 4731.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Biercuk, M. J., Uys, H., VanDevender, A. P., Shiga, N., Itano, W. M., & Bollinger, J. J. (2009). Optimized dynamical decoupling in a model quantum memory. Nature, 458(7241), 996–1000.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hopkins, B. R. (2009). Fundraising Law Made Easy. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Walsh, B. (Ed.). (2016). Essays in the History of Irish Education. Palgrave Macmillan UK.
A chapter in an edited book
Fagerlönn, J., & Liljedahl, M. (2010). Designing a Web-Based Tool That Informs the Audio Design Process. In S. Ystad, M. Aramaki, R. Kronland-Martinet, & K. Jensen (Eds.), Auditory Display: 6th International Symposium, CMMR/ICAD 2009, Copenhagen, Denmark, May 18-22, 2009. Revised Papers (pp. 68–79). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Innovation & Knowledge.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2017, May 4). Synthetic Human DNA Could Be Just 5 Years Away. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1988). DP Insurance: A Management Tool (No. 137543). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Parkinson, M. M. (2011). Adult readers’ calibration of word learning [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Zahler, P., & Schaller, G. (2014, February 2). Saving More Than Just Snow Leopards. New York Times, SR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Brubaker & Monack, 2015; Smaglik, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brubaker & Monack, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Zheng et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Biercuk et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Innovation & Knowledge
ISSN (print)2444-569X

Other styles