How to format your references using the Journal of Innovation & Knowledge citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Innovation & Knowledge. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goldston, D. (2008). Big data: Data wrangling. Nature, 455(7209), 15.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lee, S. W. S., & Schwarz, N. (2010). Washing away postdecisional dissonance. Science (New York, N.Y.), 328(5979), 709.
A journal article with 3 authors
Warrick, D. R., Tobalske, B. W., & Powers, D. R. (2005). Aerodynamics of the hovering hummingbird. Nature, 435(7045), 1094–1097.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Tsukamoto, S., Hara, T., Yamamoto, A., Kito, S., Minami, N., Kubota, T., … Kokubo, T. (2014). Fluorescence-based visualization of autophagic activity predicts mouse embryo viability. Scientific Reports, 4, 4533.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Clark, G. (2014). The Making of a World City. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Chan, C. C. (2016). Problem Gambling in Hong Kong and Macao: Etiology, Prevalence and Treatment. (W. W. L. Li & E. C. I. Leung, Eds.). Singapore: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Mosha, R. S. (2009). The Spiritual Aspects of an International Adult Education Program. In G. I. E. Strohschen (Ed.), Handbook of Blended Shore Education: Adult Program Development and Delivery (pp. 71–83). Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Innovation & Knowledge.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, April 27). Why Do Some Breast Cancers Come Back? Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2017). Health Information Technology: HHS Should Assess the Effectiveness of Its Efforts to Enhance Patient Access to and Use of Electronic Health Information (No. GAO-17-305). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mishne, J. (2012). An investigation of the relationships between technology use and teachers’ self-efficacy, knowledge and experience (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2010, March 16). Ryan Tries to Flatten A Persistent Opponent. New York Times, p. B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Goldston, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Goldston, 2008; Lee & Schwarz, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lee & Schwarz, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Warrick, Tobalske, & Powers, 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Tsukamoto et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Innovation & Knowledge
ISSN (print)2444-569X

Other styles