How to format your references using the Journal of Innovation & Knowledge citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Innovation & Knowledge. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Engelhardt, B. (2011). Neuroscience. Blood-brain barrier differentiation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 334(6063), 1652–1653.
A journal article with 2 authors
Minkov, M., & Savona, V. (2014). Automated optimization of photonic crystal slab cavities. Scientific Reports, 4, 5124.
A journal article with 3 authors
Meloso, D., Copic, J., & Bossaerts, P. (2009). Promoting intellectual discovery: patents versus markets. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5919), 1335–1339.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Yamamoto, Y., Verma, U. N., Prajapati, S., Kwak, Y.-T., & Gaynor, R. B. (2003). Histone H3 phosphorylation by IKK-alpha is critical for cytokine-induced gene expression. Nature, 423(6940), 655–659.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McDonald, A. G., & Magande, H. L. (2012). Introduction to Thermo-Fluids Systems Design. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Mulvenna, M. D., & Nugent, C. D. (Eds.). (2010). Supporting People with Dementia Using Pervasive Health Technologies. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Usher, R., & Edwards, R. (2007). Signing Power in Lifelong Learning. In R. Edwards (Ed.), Lifelong Learning – Signs, Discourses, Practices (pp. 89–105). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Innovation & Knowledge.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, October 16). Ten Things You Didn’t Know About Erections. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1978). Proposed Procedure for Access by GAO to Records of Students in the Murphy School District (B-164031(1).174). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ding, H. (2012). Mode of Action for Hexavalent Chromium Carcinogenicity in Drinking Water [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2016, December 5). In Rejection of Steinbrenner, the Hall Adopts His Brashness. New York Times, D8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Engelhardt, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Engelhardt, 2011; Minkov & Savona, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Minkov & Savona, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Meloso et al., 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Yamamoto et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Innovation & Knowledge
ISSN (print)2444-569X

Other styles