How to format your references using the Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Watanabe, M. (2004). Networking, networking, networking, networking, networking. Nature, 430(7001), 812–813.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhao, M., & Running, S. W. (2010). Drought-induced reduction in global terrestrial net primary production from 2000 through 2009. Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5994), 940–943.
A journal article with 3 authors
Georgellis, D., Kwon, O., & Lin, E. C. (2001). Quinones as the redox signal for the arc two-component system of bacteria. Science (New York, N.Y.), 292(5525), 2314–2316.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Barabási, A. L., Freeh, V. W., Jeong, H., & Brockman, J. B. (2001). Parasitic computing. Nature, 412(6850), 894–897.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Coates, M., & Jenkins, B. (2010). Electrical Installation Calculations: For Compliance with BS 7671:2008. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Botterill, L. C., & Wilhite, D. A. (Eds.). (2005). From Disaster Response to Risk Management: Australia’s National Drought Policy (Vol. 22). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Derwing, T. M., Fraser, H., Kang, O., & Thomson, R. I. (2014). L2 Accent and Ethics: Issues that Merit Attention. In A. Mahboob & L. Barratt (Eds.), Englishes in Multilingual Contexts: Language Variation and Education (pp. 63–80). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2015, August 29). View the Known Universe. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2008). Next Generation Air Transportation System: Status of Systems Acquisition and the Transition to the Next Generation Air Transportation System (No. GAO-08-1078). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gullett, D. L. (2017). Lived Experience of Suffering through the 2010 Earthquake in Haiti (Doctoral dissertation). Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gordon, M. R. (2017, September 1). Defense Secretary Says He Didn’t Contradict President. New York Times, p. A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Watanabe, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Watanabe, 2004; Zhao & Running, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zhao & Running, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Barabási et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth
AbbreviationJ. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth
ISSN (print)2169-9313
ISSN (online)2169-9356

Other styles