How to format your references using the Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Estrada-Oyuela, R. (2009). Copenhagen needs a strong lead negotiator. Nature, 461(7267), 1056–1057.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sabel, T., & Zschocher, M. (2013). Transition of refractive index contrast in course of grating growth. Scientific Reports, 3, 2552.
A journal article with 3 authors
Buck, W. R., Lavier, L. L., & Poliakov, A. N. B. (2005). Modes of faulting at mid-ocean ridges. Nature, 434(7034), 719–723.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Boutanaev, A. M., Kalmykova, A. I., Shevelyov, Y. Y., & Nurminsky, D. I. (2002). Large clusters of co-expressed genes in the Drosophila genome. Nature, 420(6916), 666–669.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Halbich, I. W. (1993). Cape Fold Belt‐Agulhas Bank Transect Across Gondwana Suture, Southern Africa (p. 46). Washington, D. C.: American Geophysical Union.
An edited book
Rieser, V. (2011). Reinforcement Learning for Adaptive Dialogue Systems: A Data-driven Methodology for Dialogue Management and Natural Language Generation. (O. Lemon, Ed.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Folorunso Olufemi, A., Sunar, M. S., & Jusoh, N. M. (2011). Improved Incremental Orthogonal Centroid Algorithm for Visualising Pipeline Sensor Datasets. In H. Badioze Zaman, P. Robinson, M. Petrou, P. Olivier, T. K. Shih, S. Velastin, & I. Nyström (Eds.), Visual Informatics: Sustaining Research and Innovations: Second International Visual Informatics Conference, IVIC 2011, Selangor, Malaysia, November 9-11, 2011, Proceedings, Part I (pp. 24–35). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, February 5). New Device Could Help Gunshot Victims In Seconds. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: The District of Columbia Faces Tremendous Challenges in Ensuring Vital Services Are Not Disrupted (No. T-AIMD-99-4). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zanulabe Din, M. O. (2017). Engineered Synchrony of Bacterial Lysis and its Applications (Doctoral dissertation). University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. (2017, April 1). The Caged Beast Awakens. New York Times, p. C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Estrada-Oyuela, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Estrada-Oyuela, 2009; Sabel & Zschocher, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sabel & Zschocher, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Boutanaev et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth
AbbreviationJ. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth
ISSN (print)2169-9313
ISSN (online)2169-9356

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