How to format your references using the Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Klironomos, J. N. (2002). Feedback with soil biota contributes to plant rarity and invasiveness in communities. Nature, 417(6884), 67–70.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tobias, S. M., & Cattaneo, F. (2013). Shear-driven dynamo waves at high magnetic Reynolds number. Nature, 497(7450), 463–465.
A journal article with 3 authors
Locher, K. P., Lee, A. T., & Rees, D. C. (2002). The E. coli BtuCD structure: a framework for ABC transporter architecture and mechanism. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5570), 1091–1098.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Uchida, K., Takahashi, S., Harii, K., Ieda, J., Koshibae, W., Ando, K., et al. (2008). Observation of the spin Seebeck effect. Nature, 455(7214), 778–781.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rossetti, N. (2005). Managing Power Electronics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Wandrey, C., & Cölfen, H. (Eds.). (2006). Analytical Ultracentrifugation VIII (Vol. 131). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Surh, Y.-J., & Chun, K.-S. (2007). CANCER CHEMOPREVENTIVE EFFECTS OF CURCUMIN. In B. B. Aggarwal, Y.-J. Surh, & S. Shishodia (Eds.), The Molecular Targets and Therapeutic Uses of Curcumin in Health and Disease (pp. 149–172). Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, November 16). From Newton To Einstein: The Origins Of General Relativity. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005). Activities of the Amtrak Inspector General (No. GAO-05-306R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schwartz, D. A. (2017). Safe Travels? An Examination of the Search and Rescue Policies and Capabilities in the Northwest Passage Region (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear, M. D., & Stolberg, S. G. (2017, October 26). Senator Goes From Trump Target to Cheerleader as Some in G.O.P. Bolt. New York Times, p. A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Knapp, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Buchanan, 2007; Subbaraman, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tobias & Cattaneo, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Nagasaka et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth
AbbreviationJ. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth
ISSN (print)2169-9313
ISSN (online)2169-9356

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