How to format your references using the Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Quéré, Y. (2010). Academies must engage with society. Nature, 465(7301), 1009.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dey, S., & Joshi, A. (2013). Effects of constant immigration on the dynamics and persistence of stable and unstable Drosophila populations. Scientific Reports, 3, 1405.
A journal article with 3 authors
Roopnarine, P. D., Angielczyk, K. D., & Hertog, R. (2006). Comment on “Statistical independence of escalatory ecological trends in Phanerozoic marine invertebrates.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5801), 925; author reply 925.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Dai, B., Zhang, Y., Zhan, Y., Zhang, D., Wang, N., & He, L. (2014). A novel tissue model for angiogenesis: evaluation of inhibitors or promoters in tissue level. Scientific Reports, 4, 3693.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brown, B. L., Hendrix, S. B., Hedges, D. W., & Smith, T. B. (2011). Multivariate Analysis for the Biobehavioral and Social Sciences. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Fabrizi, M. A. (Ed.). (2016). Fantasy Literature: Challenging Genres. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Edge, C. S., Barker, C., & Schwiebert, E. (2010). Managing Directory Services. In C. Barker & E. Schwiebert (Eds.), Beginning Mac OS X Snow Leopard Server: From Solo Install to Enterprise Integration (pp. 101–148). Berkeley, CA: Apress.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth.

Blog post
Carpineti, C. (2017, March 13). Check Out What Comes Crawling Out Of This Elephant. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2017). Maritime Administration: Proceeds from the Sale of Obsolete Vessels Were Accounted for, Allocated, and Disbursed Consistent with Applicable Law (No. GAO-17-280). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Louviere, E. C. (2017). Bonds Behind Bars: The Impact of Program Participation on Interpersonal Inmate Connections in Louisiana State Penitentiary (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Photographs by GEORGE ETHEREDGE for THE NEW YORK TIMES. (2017, March 3). The Color Red. New York Times, p. RE12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Quéré, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Dey & Joshi, 2013; Quéré, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dey & Joshi, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Dai et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth
AbbreviationJ. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth
ISSN (print)2169-9313
ISSN (online)2169-9356

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