How to format your references using the Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Thomas, C. (2011). Cardiovascular biology. Nature, 473(7347), 297.
A journal article with 2 authors
Siller, S., & Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, UK. (2001). Sexual selection and the maintenance of sex. Nature, 411(6838), 689–692.
A journal article with 3 authors
Miller, R. F., Cloutier, R., & Turner, S. (2003). The oldest articulated chondrichthyan from the Early Devonian period. Nature, 425(6957), 501–504.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hrdy, I., Hirt, R. P., Dolezal, P., Bardonová, L., Foster, P. G., Tachezy, J., & Embley, T. M. (2004). Trichomonas hydrogenosomes contain the NADH dehydrogenase module of mitochondrial complex I. Nature, 432(7017), 618–622.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Heads, G. (2017). Living Mindfully. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Dong, J. S., & Zhu, H. (Eds.). (2010). Formal Methods and Software Engineering: 12th International Conference on Formal Engineering Methods, ICFEM 2010, Shanghai, China, November 17-19, 2010. Proceedings (Vol. 6447). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Malagoli, D., & Ottaviani, E. (2014). Immune-Neuroendocrine Integration and Its Evolution. In Davide Malagoli & E. Ottaviani (Eds.), Eco-immunology: Evolutive Aspects and Future Perspectives (pp. 93–104). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, June 7). Serbian Orthodox Church Demands Museum Hands Over Ashes Of Nikola Tesla. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1991). ADP Procurement: DOD’s Approach to Providing Logistics Data on Compact Disk Is Justified (No. IMTEC-91-74). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boyle, C. N. (2013). Support program for transition age youth: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2006, August 30). Women Suddenly Scarce Among Justices’ Clerks. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Thomas, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Siller & Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, UK., 2001; Thomas, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Siller & Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, UK., 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Hrdy et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Geophysical Research: Oceans
AbbreviationJ. Geophys. Res. Oceans
ISSN (print)2169-9275
ISSN (online)2169-9291

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