How to format your references using the Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Varki, A. (2007). Glycan-based interactions involving vertebrate sialic-acid-recognizing proteins. Nature, 446(7139), 1023–1029.
A journal article with 2 authors
Miltat, J., & Thiaville, A. (2002). Ferromagnetism. Vortex cores--smaller than small. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5593), 555.
A journal article with 3 authors
Arnaud-Haond, S., Arrieta, J. M., & Duarte, C. M. (2011). Global genetic resources. Marine biodiversity and gene patents. Science (New York, N.Y.), 331(6024), 1521–1522.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Bao, H., Fairchild, I. J., Wynn, P. M., & Spötl, C. (2009). Stretching the envelope of past surface environments: Neoproterozoic glacial lakes from Svalbard. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5910), 119–122.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Abdel-aleem, S. (2010). The Design and Management of Medical Device clinical Trials. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Abraham, D., Clive, H., Dashwood, M., & Coghlan, G. (Eds.). (2010). Advances in Vascular Medicine. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Holmstrup, P., & Flyvbjerg, A. (2016). Linkage Between Periodontal Disease and Diabetes Mellitus. In A. M. Lynge Pedersen (Ed.), Oral Infections and General Health: From Molecule to Chairside (pp. 35–44). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, March 4). Galactic Merger Spotted in a Protocluster 12.5 Billion Light-Years Away. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1977). Improved Management of Computer Resources Needed To Enhance Marine Corps’ Efficiency and Effectiveness (No. LCD-76-124). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Young, W. B. (2017). First-Generation Undergraduate Researchers: Engaging and Validating Cultural Wealth-Based Self-Authors (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M. J. O. (2016, January 29). 130 Years Ago: ‘War and Peace’ Finally Published in English. New York Times, p. C29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Varki, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Miltat & Thiaville, 2002; Varki, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Miltat & Thiaville, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Bao et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Geophysical Research: Oceans
AbbreviationJ. Geophys. Res. Oceans
ISSN (print)2169-9275
ISSN (online)2169-9291

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