How to format your references using the Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2002). Building Nordic networks. Nature, 420(6916 Suppl), A3, A5, A7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Köhler, H.-R., & Triebskorn, R. (2013). Wildlife ecotoxicology of pesticides: can we track effects to the population level and beyond? Science (New York, N.Y.), 341(6147), 759–765.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vielle-Calzada, J. P., Baskar, R., & Grossniklaus, U. (2000). Delayed activation of the paternal genome during seed development. Nature, 404(6773), 91–94.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Guerlin, C., Bernu, J., Deléglise, S., Sayrin, C., Gleyzes, S., Kuhr, S., et al. (2007). Progressive field-state collapse and quantum non-demolition photon counting. Nature, 448(7156), 889–893.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Moe, T. M., & Chubb, J. E. (2009). Liberating Learning. San Francisco, CA, USA: Jossey-Bass.
An edited book
Brazier, F. M. T., Nieuwenhuis, K., Pavlin, G., Warnier, M., & Badica, C. (Eds.). (2012). Intelligent Distributed Computing V: Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Intelligent Distributed Computing – IDC 2011, Delft, The Netherlands – October 2011 (Vol. 382). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Choi, B. I., & Lee, J. M. (2013). Preoperative Imaging. In W. Y. Lau (Ed.), Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma (pp. 53–64). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, June 30). What Happens To Liquid Nitrogen In A Vacuum? Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1976). Utilization at Aberdeen Proving Ground’s ADP Installation (No. LCD-76-125). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gleason, R. (2013). Nanosphere lithography applied to magnetic thin films (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2011, December 1). Valentine in Boston? That’s Entertainment. New York Times, p. B17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Köhler & Triebskorn, 2013; Smaglik, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Köhler & Triebskorn, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Guerlin et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Geophysical Research: Oceans
AbbreviationJ. Geophys. Res. Oceans
ISSN (print)2169-9275
ISSN (online)2169-9291

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