How to format your references using the Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hammond, W. C. (2005). Geophysics. The ghost of an earthquake. Science (New York, N.Y.), 310(5753), 1440–1442.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nandagopal, N., & Elowitz, M. B. (2011). Synthetic biology: integrated gene circuits. Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6047), 1244–1248.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yan, W.-B., Huang, J.-F., & Fan, H. (2013). Tunable single-photon frequency conversion in a Sagnac interferometer. Scientific Reports, 3, 3555.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Stuart, S. N., Chanson, J. S., Cox, N. A., Young, B. E., Rodrigues, A. S. L., Fischman, D. L., & Waller, R. W. (2004). Status and trends of amphibian declines and extinctions worldwide. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5702), 1783–1786.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
MacIsaac, B., & Langton, R. (2011). Gas Turbine Propulsion Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Bryson, E. O., & Frost, E. A. M. (Eds.). (2012). Perioperative Addiction: Clinical Management of the Addicted Patient. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Carroll, J. E. (2016). The Environment is a Moral and Spiritual Issue. In S. Dhiman & J. Marques (Eds.), Spirituality and Sustainability: New Horizons and Exemplary Approaches (pp. 49–71). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, March 26). How Fasting Might Make Our Cells More Resilient To Stress. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2016). NASA: Assessments of Major Projects (No. GAO-16-309SP). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Forlano, L. (2008). When code meets place: Collaboration and innovation at WiFi hotspots (Doctoral dissertation). Columbia University, New York, NY.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W., & Corkery, M. (2015, July 27). Hedge Fund Economists See Solution to Island’s Debt Crisis. New York Times, p. B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hammond, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Hammond, 2005; Nandagopal & Elowitz, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nandagopal & Elowitz, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Stuart et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface
AbbreviationJ. Geophys. Res. Earth Surf.
ISSN (print)2169-9003
ISSN (online)2169-9011

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