How to format your references using the Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pollock, T. M. (2010). Materials science. Weight loss with magnesium alloys. Science (New York, N.Y.), 328(5981), 986–987.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fu, Y.-X., & Storb, U. (2002). Immunology. Autoreactive B cells migrate into T cell territory. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5589), 2006–2008.
A journal article with 3 authors
Serabyn, E., Mawet, D., & Burruss, R. (2010). An image of an exoplanet separated by two diffraction beamwidths from a star. Nature, 464(7291), 1018–1020.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Moukhametzianov, R., Klare, J. P., Efremov, R., Baeken, C., Göppner, A., Labahn, J., et al. (2006). Development of the signal in sensory rhodopsin and its transfer to the cognate transducer. Nature, 440(7080), 115–119.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Burnett, R., Brunstrom, A., & Nilsson, A. G. (2005). Perspectives on Multimedia. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Mangiameli, S. (Ed.). (2014). Italian Regionalism: Between Unitary Traditions and Federal Processes: Investigating Italy’s Form of State (Vol. 1). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Koochakzadeh, N., Keshavarz, F., Sarraf, A., Rahmani, A., Kianmehr, K., Rifaie, M., et al. (2011). Stock Investment Decision Making: A Social Network Approach. In D. Ryżko, H. Rybiński, P. Gawrysiak, & M. Kryszkiewicz (Eds.), Emerging Intelligent Technologies in Industry (pp. 47–57). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, November 7). Oldest European Genome Sequenced. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1975). Inquiry Into Possible Computer Processing Problems in School Lunch Programs (No. LCD-75-114). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
An, D. (2017). Improved Flotation of Bastnaesite and Chalcopyrite (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J. (2017, October 10). It’s That ’80s Show. New York Times, p. C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pollock, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Fu & Storb, 2002; Pollock, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fu & Storb, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Moukhametzianov et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface
AbbreviationJ. Geophys. Res. Earth Surf.
ISSN (print)2169-9003
ISSN (online)2169-9011

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