How to format your references using the Journal of Frailty & Aging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Frailty & Aging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mokyr J. ECONOMICS. Intellectuals and the rise of the modern economy. Science 2015;349:141–142
A journal article with 2 authors
Lu X, Brelsford C. Network structure and community evolution on Twitter: human behavior change in response to the 2011 Japanese earthquake and tsunami. Sci Rep 2014;4:6773
A journal article with 3 authors
Gerber LR, Hyrenbach KD, Zacharias MA. Ecology. Do the largest protected areas conserve whales or whalers? Science 2005;307:525–526
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Qiu X, Deorani P, Narayanapillai K, et al. Angular and temperature dependence of current induced spin-orbit effective fields in Ta/CoFeB/MgO nanowires. Sci Rep 2014;4:4491

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Abulencia JP, Theodore L. Open-Ended Problems. 2015. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Boden F, Lawson N, Jentink HW, Kompenhans J (eds). Advanced In-Flight Measurement Techniques. 2013. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Pfeiffer S, Green T. Accessibility, Internationalization, and Navigation. In: Green T (ed) Beginning HTML5 Media: Make the most of the new video and audio standards for the Web. 2015. Apress, Berkeley, CA, pp 129–189

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Frailty & Aging.

Blog post
Hale T. Scotland Sees Record-Smashing Numbers Of Dolphins. IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Partial Report-in-Depth Investigation Into Independent Research and Development and Bid and Proposal Programs. 1974. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bryant MG. The Development of the Massive Open Online Course Virtual Learning Environment Scale (MVLE) and Model to Measure Satisfaction of MOOC Online Learning Courses in Higher Education: A Mixed Methods Study. 2017. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Tough Architect of the Mets. New York Times . 2017, D1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Frailty & Aging
ISSN (print)2260-1341

Other styles