How to format your references using the Journal of Frailty & Aging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Frailty & Aging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nurse P. Wee beasties. Nature 2004;432:557
A journal article with 2 authors
Worby CA, Dixon JE. Microbiology. Bacteria seize control by acetylating host proteins. Science 2006;312:1150–1151
A journal article with 3 authors
Bailor MH, Sun X, Al-Hashimi HM. Topology links RNA secondary structure with global conformation, dynamics, and adaptation. Science 2010;327:202–206
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Enninga J, Levy DE, Blobel G, Fontoura BMA. Role of nucleoporin induction in releasing an mRNA nuclear export block. Science 2002;295:1523–1525

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chin W. Reservoir Engineering in Modern Oilfields. 2016. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Grigore M-N. Halophytes: An Integrative Anatomical Study. 2014. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Yonath A. A Vestige of an RNA Apparatus With Ribozyme Capabilities Embedded and Functions Within the Modern Ribosome. In: Trueba G, Montúfar C (eds) Evolution from the Galapagos: Two Centuries after Darwin. 2013. Springer, New York, NY, pp 33–40

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Frailty & Aging.

Blog post
Evans K. Degraded Forests Provide Refuge For Animals, New Study Shows. IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Acquisitions: Improvements Needed in Space Systems Acquisitions and Keys to Achieving Them. 2006. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gordon RL. Neural and behavioral correlates of song prosody. 2010. Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. On a Site of Terror and Death, Survivors Find a Role. New York Times . 2001, H6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Frailty & Aging
ISSN (print)2260-1341

Other styles