How to format your references using the Journal of Frailty & Aging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Frailty & Aging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Van Noorden R. 2010 Gallery: images of the year. Nature 2010;468:1018
A journal article with 2 authors
Stolinsky DC, Rubinstein E. Science’s Conversation with Jiang Zemin. Science 2000;289:548–549
A journal article with 3 authors
Yoshida S, Sukeno M, Nabeshima Y-I. A vasculature-associated niche for undifferentiated spermatogonia in the mouse testis. Science 2007;317:1722–1726
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Siepielski AM, Morrissey MB, Buoro M, et al. Response to Comment on “Precipitation drives global variation in natural selection.” Science 2018;359

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cohen WR, Friedman EA. Labor and Delivery Care. 2011. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Brubaker DA. Jizi and His Art in Contemporary China: Unification. 2015. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Takahashi EJ, Lan P, Okino T, et al. Intense Attosecond Pulses for Probing Ultrafast Molecular Dynamics. In: Yamanouchi K, Cundiff S, Vivie-Riedle R de, Kuwata-Gonokami M, DiMauro L (eds) Ultrafast Phenomena XIX: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference, Okinawa Convention Center, Okinawa, Japan, July 7-11, 2014. 2015. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 16–19

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Frailty & Aging.

Blog post
Taub B. NASA Will Soon Let Private Companies Attach Modules To The ISS. IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Pipeline Safety: Systematic Process Needed to Evaluate Outcomes of Research and Development Program. 2003. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lavin EE. Discourse in monolingual and bilingual non-trial hearings. 2015. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kolomatsky M. Brooklyn Prices Reach New Level. New York Times . 2017, RE2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Frailty & Aging
ISSN (print)2260-1341

Other styles