How to format your references using the Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gandy, S. (2011). Perspective: prevention is better than cure. Nature, 475(7355), S15.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thorsteinsdóttir, H., & Sáenz, T. W. (2012). History of science. Tackling meningitis in Africa. Science (New York, N.Y.), 338(6114), 1546–1547.
A journal article with 3 authors
Helle, S., Lummaa, V., & Jokela, J. (2002). Sons reduced maternal longevity in preindustrial humans. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5570), 1085.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kvist, A., Lindström A, Green, M., Piersma, T., & Visser, G. H. (2001). Carrying large fuel loads during sustained bird flight is cheaper than expected. Nature, 413(6857), 730–732.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
German Geotechnical Society. (2013). Taschenbuch für den Tunnelbau 2014. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH.
An edited book
Halt, G. B., Jr. (2014). Intellectual Property in Consumer Electronics, Software and Technology Startups (J. C. Donch Jr., A. R. Stiles, & R. Fesnak, Eds.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Basupalli, V., Yuki, T., Rajopadhye, S., Morvan, A., Derrien, S., Quinton, P., & Wonnacott, D. (2011). ompVerify: Polyhedral Analysis for the OpenMP Programmer. In B. M. Chapman, W. D. Gropp, K. Kumaran, & M. S. Müller (Eds.), OpenMP in the Petascale Era: 7th International Workshop on OpenMP, IWOMP 2011, Chicago, IL, USA, June 13-15, 2011. Proceedings (pp. 37–53). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2017, March 29). New Asteroid Is Orbiting Jupiter And The Sun The Wrong Way Around. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1984). A List of Selected GAO Publications Containing Checklists or Guidance on Computer Software Topics (No. 125250). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Verdi, K. C. (2017). What Does It Mean to Be a Service-Learning Teacher? - An Autoethnography [Doctoral dissertation]. University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper, H. (2008, June 21). Bush Is Likely to End Term With Iran Issue Unsettled. New York Times, A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gandy, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Gandy, 2011; Thorsteinsdóttir & Sáenz, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Thorsteinsdóttir & Sáenz, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Helle et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Kvist et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition
AbbreviationJ. Exp. Psychol. Learn. Mem. Cogn.
ISSN (print)0278-7393
ISSN (online)1939-1285
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
Linguistics and Language

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