How to format your references using the Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Engelman, D. M. (2005). Membranes are more mosaic than fluid. Nature, 438(7068), 578–580.
A journal article with 2 authors
Raymond, J., & Segrè, D. (2006). The effect of oxygen on biochemical networks and the evolution of complex life. Science (New York, N.Y.), 311(5768), 1764–1767.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bala, A. D. S., Spitzer, M. W., & Takahashi, T. T. (2003). Prediction of auditory spatial acuity from neural images on the owl’s auditory space map. Nature, 424(6950), 771–774.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zachos, J. C., Arthur, M. A., Bralower, T. J., & Spero, H. J. (2002). Palaeoclimatology: tropical temperatures in greenhouse episodes. Nature, 419(6910), 897–898; discussion 898.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Silk, R. D., & Lintott, J. W. (2011). Managing Foundations and Charitable Trusts. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Fassbinder, S. D., Ii, A. J. N., & Kahn, R. (Eds.). (2012). Greening the Academy: Ecopedagogy Through the Liberal Arts. SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Kyriazopoulou, C. (2015). Architectures and Requirements for the Development of Smart Cities: A Literature Study. In M. Helfert, K.-H. Krempels, C. Klein, B. Donellan, & O. Guiskhin (Eds.), Smart Cities, Green Technologies, and Intelligent Transport Systems: 4th International Conference, SMARTGREENS 2015, and 1st International Conference VEHITS 2015, Lisbon, Portugal, May 20-22, 2015, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 75–103). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, April 27). Why Too Much Facebook Can Leave You Feeling Down. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1971). Review of Administration of Selected Aspects of the Student-Tutor Education Program by the National Endowment for the Humanities (B-158811). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Greene, J. (2017). Recognizing the “Muchness” in Art Education: a Historical Analysis of Developments in Education and Art Education Since the 1950s and the Finding Your Muchness Photoshop Curriculum [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. (2017, October 20). A ‘Torch’ Still Sears. New York Times, C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Engelman, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Engelman, 2005; Raymond & Segrè, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Raymond & Segrè, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Bala et al., 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Zachos et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition
AbbreviationJ. Exp. Psychol. Learn. Mem. Cogn.
ISSN (print)0278-7393
ISSN (online)1939-1285
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
Linguistics and Language

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