How to format your references using the Journal of Experimental Psychology: General citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cooper, T. A. (2009). Molecular biology. Neutralizing toxic RNA. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5938), 272–273.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ghezzi, I., & Ruggles, C. (2007). Chankillo: a 2300-year-old solar observatory in coastal Peru. Science (New York, N.Y.), 315(5816), 1239–1243.
A journal article with 3 authors
Corcoran, A. J., Barber, J. R., & Conner, W. E. (2009). Tiger moth jams bat sonar. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5938), 325–327.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Yang, J.-S., Kim, J., Park, S., Jeon, J., Shin, Y.-E., & Kim, S. (2013). Spatial and functional organization of mitochondrial protein network. Scientific Reports, 3, 1403.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Posudin, Y. (2014). Methods of Measuring Environmental Parameters. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kim, S. S. (Ed.). (2013). Oocyte Biology in Fertility Preservation (Vol. 761). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Webby, R. J., Webster, R. G., & Richt, J. A. (2007). Influenza Viruses in Animal Wildlife Populations. In J. E. Childs, J. S. Mackenzie, & J. A. Richt (Eds.), Wildlife and Emerging Zoonotic Diseases: The Biology, Circumstances and Consequences of Cross-Species Transmission (pp. 67–83). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, June 8). Mammals Began To Take Over The World Long Before The Dinosaurs Perished. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2016). China: U.S. Universities in China Emphasize Academic Freedom but Face Internet Censorship and Other Challenges (No. GAO-16-757). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barger, B. (2014). A Quantitative Study of Educational Poverty, School Location, and Student Achievement Measured by the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B. (2017, July 14). Judge Voids Deal Over Prince Catalog. New York Times, p. B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cooper, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Cooper, 2009; Ghezzi & Ruggles, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ghezzi & Ruggles, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Corcoran, Barber, & Conner, 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Yang et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Experimental Psychology: General
AbbreviationJ. Exp. Psychol. Gen.
ISSN (print)0096-3445
ISSN (online)1939-2222
ScopeDevelopmental Neuroscience
General Psychology
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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