How to format your references using the Journal of Experimental Psychology: General citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Friedman, M. (2008). The evolutionary origin of flatfish asymmetry. Nature, 454(7201), 209–212.
A journal article with 2 authors
Giazotto, F., & Martínez-Pérez, M. J. (2012). The Josephson heat interferometer. Nature, 492(7429), 401–405.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sakuragi, S., Tominaga-Yoshino, K., & Ogura, A. (2013). Involvement of TrkB- and p75(NTR)-signaling pathways in two contrasting forms of long-lasting synaptic plasticity. Scientific Reports, 3, 3185.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Smart, N., Bollini, S., Dubé, K. N., Vieira, J. M., Zhou, B., Davidson, S., Yellon, D., Riegler, J., Price, A. N., Lythgoe, M. F., Pu, W. T., & Riley, P. R. (2011). De novo cardiomyocytes from within the activated adult heart after injury. Nature, 474(7353), 640–644.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Soustelle, M. (2016). Thermodynamics of Surfaces and Capillary Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Caramia, M. (2006). Effective Resource Management in Manufacturing Systems: Optimization Algorithms for Production Planning (P. Dell’Olmo, Ed.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Cassini, M., Borgnia, M., Arzamendia, Y., Benítez, V., & Vilá, B. (2009). Sociality, Foraging and Habitat Use by Vicuña. In I. J. Gordon (Ed.), The Vicuña: The Theory and Practice of Community Based Wildlife Management (pp. 35–48). Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016, June 16). Five Laws About The Dead That May Spook You. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Concerns About Compliance Information on Biomedical Equipment (T-AIMD-99-209). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Simonsen, A. E. (2010). Risk and resilience: Girls’ experiences navigating space and relationships in a secure residential facility [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Tackett, M. (2017, October 14). As Well-Educated Leave, Iowa’s Shift to G.O.P. Is a Matter of Degree. New York Times, A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Friedman, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Friedman, 2008; Giazotto & Martínez-Pérez, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Giazotto & Martínez-Pérez, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Sakuragi et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Smart et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Experimental Psychology: General
AbbreviationJ. Exp. Psychol. Gen.
ISSN (print)0096-3445
ISSN (online)1939-2222
ScopeDevelopmental Neuroscience
General Psychology
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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