How to format your references using the Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning and Cognition citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning and Cognition. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Balch, J. K. (2014). Atmospheric science: drought and fire change sink to source. Nature, 506(7486), 41–42.
A journal article with 2 authors
Graham, S., & Hegde, D. (2015). Intellectual Property. Disclosing patents’ secrets. Science (New York, N.Y.), 347(6219), 236–237.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schätz, T., Schramm, U., & Habs, D. (2001). Crystalline ion beams. Nature, 412(6848), 717–720.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hsu, T.-C., Liu, K.-K., Chang, H.-C., Hwang, E., & Chao, J.-I. (2014). Labeling of neuronal differentiation and neuron cells with biocompatible fluorescent nanodiamonds. Scientific Reports, 4, 5004.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Quinquis, A. (2008). Digital Signal Processing using MATLAB®. ISTE.
An edited book
Abdulrazak, B., Giroux, S., Bouchard, B., Pigot, H., & Mokhtari, M. (Eds.). (2011). Toward Useful Services for Elderly and People with Disabilities: 9th International Conference on Smart Homes and Health Telematics, ICOST 2011, Montreal, Canada, June 20-22, 2011. Proceedings (Vol. 6719). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Dede, E. M., Lee, J., & Nomura, T. (2014). Electromechanical System Simulation and Optimization Studies. In J. Lee & T. Nomura (Eds.), Multiphysics Simulation: Electromechanical System Applications and Optimization (pp. 61–187). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning and Cognition.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016, October 26). Psychedelic Lichen May Contain Multiple Hallucinogenic Compounds. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1994). International Aviation: DOT Needs More Information to Address U.S. Airlines’ Problems in Doing Business Abroad (RCED-95-24). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tsai, H.-Y. (2006). Elucidating the Role of Protein Cofactors in RNA Catalysis Using Ribonuclease P as the Model System [Doctoral dissertation]. Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. (1992, September 14). THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Debates; Clinton Aides Try to Pressure Bush on Format. New York Times, A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Balch, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Balch, 2014; Graham & Hegde, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Graham & Hegde, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Schätz et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Hsu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning and Cognition
AbbreviationJ. Exp. Psychol. Anim. Learn. Cogn.
ISSN (print)2329-8456
ISSN (online)2329-8464
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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