How to format your references using the Journal of Experimental & Theoretical Artificial Intelligence citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Experimental & Theoretical Artificial Intelligence. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Maquat, L. E. (2002). Molecular biology. Skiing toward nonstop mRNA decay. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5563), 2221–2222.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sansom, R. S., & Wills, M. A. (2013). Fossilization causes organisms to appear erroneously primitive by distorting evolutionary trees. Scientific Reports, 3, 2545.
A journal article with 3 authors
Biastoch, A., Böning, C. W., & Lutjeharms, J. R. E. (2008). Agulhas leakage dynamics affects decadal variability in Atlantic overturning circulation. Nature, 456(7221), 489–492.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Mihola, O., Trachtulec, Z., Vlcek, C., Schimenti, J. C., & Forejt, J. (2009). A mouse speciation gene encodes a meiotic histone H3 methyltransferase. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5912), 373–375.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Duckert, G. H. (2010). Practical Enterprise Risk Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Salam, M. A. (2016). Power Systems Grounding (Q. M. Rahman, Ed.). Singapore: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhou, S.-M., Chiclana, F., John, R. I., & Garibaldi, J. M. (2011). Fuzzification of the OWA Operators for Aggregating Uncertain Information with Uncertain Weights. In R. R. Yager, J. Kacprzyk, & G. Beliakov (Eds.), Recent Developments in the Ordered Weighted Averaging Operators: Theory and Practice (pp. 91–109). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Experimental & Theoretical Artificial Intelligence.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2017, March 21). The Ganges And Yamuna Rivers Given Same Legal Rights As Humans. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from IFLScience website:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1975). Actions Taken or Needed To Curb Widespread Abuse of the Citizens Band Radio Service (No. GGD-75-88). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bai, H. (2008). High Temperature Proton-Exchange and Fuel Processing Membranes for Fuel Cells and Other Applications (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. (1992, November 27). Little Rock Hopes Clinton Presidency Will Put Its Dogpatch Image to Rest. New York Times, p. A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Maquat, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Maquat, 2002; Sansom & Wills, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sansom & Wills, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Biastoch, Böning, & Lutjeharms, 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Mihola, Trachtulec, Vlcek, Schimenti, & Forejt, 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Experimental & Theoretical Artificial Intelligence
AbbreviationJ. Exp. Theor. Artif. Intell.
ISSN (print)0952-813X
ISSN (online)1362-3079
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Theoretical Computer Science

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