How to format your references using the Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Beutler B. Inferences, questions and possibilities in Toll-like receptor signalling. Nature. 2004;430:257–63.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Meinhart A, Cramer P. Recognition of RNA polymerase II carboxy-terminal domain by 3’-RNA-processing factors. Nature. 2004;430:223–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Chesler PM, Liu H, Adams A. Holographic vortex liquids and superfluid turbulence. Science. 2013;341:368–72.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Chandrashekar J, Yarmolinsky D, von Buchholtz L, Oka Y, Sly W, Ryba NJP, et al. The taste of carbonation. Science. 2009;326:443–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Bucci D. Analog Electronics for Measuring Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
1. Lopaschuk GD, Dhalla NS, editors. Cardiac Energy Metabolism in Health and Disease. New York, NY: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Züllighoven H, Lilienthal C, Bennicke M. Software Architecture Analysis and Evaluation. In: Hofmeister C, Crnkovic I, Reussner R, editors. Quality of Software Architectures: Second International Conference on Quality of Software Architectures, QoSA 2006, Västerås, Sweden, June 27-29, 2006 Revised Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. p. 7–8.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research.

Blog post
1. Andrew D. Using DNA To Unlock The Mysteries Of Cannabis And Reduce The Risk Of Dodgy ‘Medical’ Products [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Federal Trade Commission: Information on Proposed Regional Restructuring Effort. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999 Feb. Report No.: GGD-99-25.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Lew MM. Hydroxyl, Hydroperoxyl, and Organic Peroxy Radical Chemistry in Forested Areas: Measurements, Modeling and Implications for Atmospheric Chemistry [Doctoral dissertation]. [Bloomington, IN]: Indiana University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kishkovsky S. Filmmaker From Ukraine Sent to Prison by Russians. New York Times. 2015 Aug 26;A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research
AbbreviationJ. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
ISSN (online)1756-9966
ScopeCancer Research

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