How to format your references using the Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Benford G. Where might it lead? Nature. 2001;414:399.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Eaves AA, Palmer AR. Reproduction: widespread cloning in echinoderm larvae. Nature. 2003;425:146.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Ehrsson HH, Spence C, Passingham RE. That’s my hand! Activity in premotor cortex reflects feeling of ownership of a limb. Science. 2004;305:875–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Savile CK, Janey JM, Mundorff EC, Moore JC, Tam S, Jarvis WR, et al. Biocatalytic asymmetric synthesis of chiral amines from ketones applied to sitagliptin manufacture. Science. 2010;329:305–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Tadros TF. Colloids in Paints. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2010.
An edited book
1. Kumar P, Gupta VK, Tiwari AK, Kamle M, editors. Current Trends in Plant Disease Diagnostics and Management Practices. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Chase P, Singh OP. Bioresources of Nagaland: A Case of Wild Edible Fruits in Khonoma Village Forest. In: Purkayastha J, editor. Bioprospecting of Indigenous Bioresources of North-East India. Singapore: Springer; 2016. p. 45–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Penn & Teller Call Bullshit on Anti-Vaccination [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Army Networks: Size and Scope of Modernization Investment Merit Increased Oversight. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2013 Jan. Report No.: GAO-13-179.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Child RJ. The evolution of BARREN INFLORESCENCE1 and related AUX/IAA genes in angiosperms [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Mueller B, Baker AL, Southall A. Attempted Murder Charge in Bronx Shooting of Boy on His 5th Birthday. New York Times. 2017 Jun 6;A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research
AbbreviationJ. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
ISSN (online)1756-9966
ScopeCancer Research

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