How to format your references using the Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Borrero JC. Field data and satellite imagery of tsunami effects in Banda Aceh. Science. 2005;308:1596.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Long Y, Wang J. Optically-controlled extinction ratio and Q-factor tunable silicon microring resonators based on optical forces. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5409.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Zhang J, Lu H, Huang L. Calciphytoliths (calcium oxalate crystals) analysis for the identification of decayed tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.). Sci Rep. 2014;4:6703.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Stone EC, Cummings AC, McDonald FB, Heikkila BC, Lal N, Webber WR. An asymmetric solar wind termination shock. Nature. 2008;454:71–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Norwitz ER, Belfort MA, Saade GR, Miller H. Obstetric Clinical Algorithms: Management and Evidence. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
1. Bouabana-Tebibel T, Rubin SH, editors. Formalisms for Reuse and Systems Integration. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Carpentieri G, Fraternali F, Skelton RE. A Tensegrity Paradigm for Minimal Mass Design of Roofs and Bridges. In: Weinberg K, Pandolfi A, editors. Innovative Numerical Approaches for Multi-Field and Multi-Scale Problems: In Honor of Michael Ortiz’s 60th Birthday. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 91–114.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research.

Blog post
1. Andrews R. Watch As 15 Years’ Worth Of Earthquakes Shake The Planet. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. [Comments on NASA Employee’s Proposed Work Schedule]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995 Jun. Report No.: B-258316.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Sherman LJ. Bridging the attachment transmission gap with maternal mind-mindedness and infant temperament [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Neuman W. Brutal Past and Promising Future Clash in Colombian City. New York Times. 2015 Jul 14;A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research
AbbreviationJ. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
ISSN (online)1756-9966
ScopeCancer Research

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