How to format your references using the Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Loder N. Director of Wellcome centre resigns over damning report. Nature. 2000;404(6779):696.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jackson MG, Carlson RW. An ancient recipe for flood-basalt genesis. Nature. 2011;476(7360):316-319.
A journal article with 3 authors
Garcia P, Armstrong R, Zaman MH. Models of education in medicine, public health, and engineering. Science. 2014;345(6202):1281-1283.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Marcikic I, de Riedmatten H, Tittel W, Zbinden H, Gisin N. Long-distance teleportation of qubits at telecommunication wavelengths. Nature. 2003;421(6922):509-513.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kula G, Raab M, Stahn S. Beyond Smart Beta. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
Akiyama J, Bo J, Kano M, Tan X, eds. Computational Geometry, Graphs and Applications: 9th International Conference, CGGA 2010, Dalian, China, November 3-6, 2010, Revised Selected Papers. Vol 7033. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Bijani S, Robertson D, Aspinall D. Probing Attacks on Multi-Agent Systems Using Electronic Institutions. In: Sakama C, Sardina S, Vasconcelos W, Winikoff M, eds. Declarative Agent Languages and Technologies IX: 9th International Workshop, DALT 2011, Taipei, Taiwan, May 3, 2011, Revised Selected and Invited Papers. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012:33-50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Cassini Sees Canyons On Titan. IFLScience. Published August 11, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. National Airspace System: Assessment of FAA’s Efforts to Augment the Global Positioning System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schloesser K. Improving services for persons with developmental disabilities through the utilization of person-centered thinking: A grant-writing project. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mele C. Pirate Joe’s, Unauthorized Canadian Seller of Booty From U.S. Chain, Closes. New York Times. June 8, 2017:B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Exercise Science & Fitness
AbbreviationJ. Exerc. Sci. Fit.
ISSN (print)1728-869X
ScopePharmacology (nursing)
Pharmaceutical Science

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