How to format your references using the Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rubinsztein DC. The roles of intracellular protein-degradation pathways in neurodegeneration. Nature. 2006;443(7113):780-786.
A journal article with 2 authors
O’Neill LAJ, Hardie DG. Metabolism of inflammation limited by AMPK and pseudo-starvation. Nature. 2013;493(7432):346-355.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rogina B, Helfand SL, Frankel S. Longevity regulation by Drosophila Rpd3 deacetylase and caloric restriction. Science. 2002;298(5599):1745.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Fontanari Krause LM, Japp AS, Krause A, et al. Identification and characterization of OSTL (RNF217) encoding a RING-IBR-RING protein adjacent to a translocation breakpoint involving ETV6 in childhood ALL. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6565.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Knowles R. 200 Contractual Problems and Their Solutions. Wiley-Blackwell; 2012.
An edited book
Poli F. Photonic Crystal Fibers: Properties and Applications. Vol 102. (Cucinotta A, Selleri S, eds.). Springer Netherlands; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Oyama-Higa M, Miao T, Takada S. Development of the System which Carries Out the Self-check of the Mental Condition Using the Nonlinear Analysis of the Plethysmogram. In: Pham TD, Ichikawa K, Oyama-Higa M, Coomans D, Jiang X, eds. Biomedical Informatics and Technology: First International Conference, ACBIT 2013, Aizu-Wakamatsu, Japan, September 16-17, 2013. Revised Selected Papers. Communications in Computer and Information Science. Springer; 2014:53-66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Watch The Perseid Meteor Shower Online. IFLScience. Published August 10, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Student Attrition at the Five Federal Service Academies. Enclosure B: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hall S. The use of art therapy to address psychosocial stress among men living with HIV: A grant proposal project. Published online 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. ‘Jersey’ Seems to Be the Word. New York Times. August 12, 2010:E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Exercise Science & Fitness
AbbreviationJ. Exerc. Sci. Fit.
ISSN (print)1728-869X
ScopePharmacology (nursing)
Pharmaceutical Science

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