How to format your references using the Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Collier RJ. Microbiology. Salmonella’s safety catch. Science. 2010;328:981–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Bintanja R, van de Wal RSW. North American ice-sheet dynamics and the onset of 100,000-year glacial cycles. Nature. 2008;454:869–72.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Bowman GD, O’Donnell M, Kuriyan J. Structural analysis of a eukaryotic sliding DNA clamp-clamp loader complex. Nature. 2004;429:724–30.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Heun P, Laroche T, Shimada K, Furrer P, Gasser SM. Chromosome dynamics in the yeast interphase nucleus. Science. 2001;294:2181–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Niemi V, Nyberg K. Universal Mobile Telecommunications System Security. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
1. Kowalewski MM, Garber PA, Cortés-Ortiz L, Urbani B, Youlatos D, editors. Howler Monkeys: Adaptive Radiation, Systematics, and Morphology. New York, NY: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Marsh S, Noël S, Storer T, Wang Y, Briggs P, Robart L, et al. Non-standards for Trust: Foreground Trust and Second Thoughts for Mobile Security. In: Meadows C, Fernandez-Gago C, editors. Security and Trust Management: 7th International Workshop, STM 2011, Copenhagen, Denmark, June 27-28, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 28–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders.

Blog post
1. Davis J. Scientists Reprogram Skin Cells To Hunt Down And Shrink Brain Tumors [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Financial Management Systems: Lack of Disciplined Process Puts Effective Implementation of Treasury’s Governmentwide Financial Report System at Risk. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006 Apr. Report No.: GAO-06-413.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Song H-J. Strategic Constraints of Economic Interdependence: South Korea’s Changing Strategy in the Face of a Rising China [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kenigsberg B. The Latest Word From Al Gore on Climate Change. New York Times. 2017 Jul 27;C8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders
AbbreviationJ. Diabetes Metab. Disord.
ISSN (online)2251-6581
ScopeEndocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Internal Medicine

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