How to format your references using the Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Johnson A. IBI* series winner. Radiation and atomic literacy for nonscientists. Science. 2013;342:436–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Subang MC, Richardson PM. Neuroscience. Nuclear power for axonal growth. Science. 2009;326:238–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Belonoshko AB, Ahuja R, Johansson B. Stability of the body-centred-cubic phase of iron in the Earth’s inner core. Nature. 2003;424:1032–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Maeda N, Chen N, Tirrell M, Israelachvili JN. Adhesion and friction mechanisms of polymer-on-polymer surfaces. Science. 2002;297:379–82.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Kroese DP, Taimre T, Botev ZI, Rubinstein RY. Simulation and the Monte Carlo Method: Solutions Manual to Accompany. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2007.
An edited book
1. Zhang J, editor. PEM Fuel Cell Electrocatalysts and Catalyst Layers: Fundamentals and Applications. London: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Nelson A. XML Conversion of the Windows Registry for Forensic Processing and Distribution. In: Peterson G, Shenoi S, editors. Advances in Digital Forensics VIII: 8th IFIP WG 119 International Conference on Digital Forensics, Pretoria, South Africa, January 3-5, 2012, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 51–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders.

Blog post
1. Fang J. New Peruvian Frog Has White Splotches On Its Belly. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Aviation Safety: Facility Ranking of Controller Survey Responses. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989 Nov. Report No.: RCED-90-39.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Aldridge KN. The Impact of Improved Teachers’ Classroom Management and Cultural Responsiveness on Student Behavior [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Brantley B. The Image Is Fixed, but Our Lives Are in Flux. New York Times. 2016 Mar 24;C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders
AbbreviationJ. Diabetes Metab. Disord.
ISSN (online)2251-6581
ScopeEndocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Internal Medicine

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