How to format your references using the Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Fairchild AL. Public health. Diabetes and disease surveillance. Science. 2006;313:175–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Kwok S, Zhang Y. Mixed aromatic-aliphatic organic nanoparticles as carriers of unidentified infrared emission features. Nature. 2011;479:80–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Duplessy JC, Roche DM, Kageyama M. The deep ocean during the last interglacial period. Science. 2007;316:89–91.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Gulde S, Riebe M, Lancaster GPT, Becher C, Eschner J, Häffner H, et al. Implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm on an ion-trap quantum computer. Nature. 2003;421:48–50.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Horton W. E-Learning by Design. San Francisco, CA, USA: Pfeiffer; 2011.
An edited book
1. Kauffman CA, Pappas PG, Sobel JD, Dismukes WE, editors. Essentials of Clinical Mycology. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Agnello MF. The Dispositions of Teachers as Researchers: A Call to Action. In: Agnello MF, Reynolds WM, editors. Practicing Critical Pedagogy: The Influences of Joe L Kincheloe. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 29–36.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders.

Blog post
1. Fang J. 34-Million-Year-Old Fossils Link Penguin Brain Evolution With Underwater Flight [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Land-Grant College Revenues. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995 Oct. Report No.: HEHS-96-10R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Lintott RW. The manipulation of time perception in John Adams’s “Doctor Atomic” [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Saslow L. Suffolk Bill Focuses On Day Laborers. New York Times. 2007 Feb 4;14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders
AbbreviationJ. Diabetes Metab. Disord.
ISSN (online)2251-6581
ScopeEndocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Internal Medicine

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