How to format your references using the Journal of Dermatology & Dermatologic Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Dermatology & Dermatologic Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lichten, M., 2015. Molecular biology. Putting the breaks on meiosis. Science 350, 913.
A journal article with 2 authors
Reynolds, J.D., Freckleton, R.P., 2005. Ecology. Population dynamics: growing to extremes. Science 309, 567–568.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lisiecki, L.E., Raymo, M.E., Curry, W.B., 2008. Atlantic overturning responses to Late Pleistocene climate forcings. Nature 456, 85–88.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lathem, W.W., Price, P.A., Miller, V.L., Goldman, W.E., 2007. A plasminogen-activating protease specifically controls the development of primary pneumonic plague. Science 315, 509–513.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bhattacharyya, A.K., 2005. Phased Array Antennas. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Guger, C., Allison, B., Leuthardt, E.C. (Eds.), 2014. Brain-Computer Interface Research: A State-of-the-Art Summary -2, Biosystems & Biorobotics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Zini, G., Tartarini, P., 2012. Wind Energy, in: Tartarini, P. (Ed.), Solar Hydrogen Energy Systems: Science and Technology for the Hydrogen Economy. Springer, Milano, pp. 73–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Dermatology & Dermatologic Surgery.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2016. Animals Inherit Their Mother’s Social Network [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1981. Making Evaluations Relevant to Congressional Needs (No. 116233). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alexander, R.T., 2017. Can the analytical hierarchy process model be effectively applied in the prioritization of information assurance defense in-depth measures? - a quantitative study (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2013. Double Dose on Opening Day Warms the Soul. New York Times B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lichten, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Lichten, 2015; Reynolds and Freckleton, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Reynolds and Freckleton, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Lathem et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Dermatology & Dermatologic Surgery
ISSN (print)2352-2410

Other styles