How to format your references using the Journal of Dentistry: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Dentistry: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D.A. Blank, Chemistry. A sideways glance at chemical reactivity, Science. 322 (2008) 1056–1057.
A journal article with 2 authors
X. Ge, S. He, Experimental realization of an open cavity, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5965.
A journal article with 3 authors
L. Margulies, G. Winther, H.F. Poulsen, In situ measurement of grain rotation during deformation of polycrystals, Science. 291 (2001) 2392–2394.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M.R. Macbeth, H.L. Schubert, A.P. Vandemark, A.T. Lingam, C.P. Hill, B.L. Bass, Inositol hexakisphosphate is bound in the ADAR2 core and required for RNA editing, Science. 309 (2005) 1534–1539.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.D. Holmes, Great Myths of Education and Learning, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2016.
An edited book
F. Drewes, ed., Implementation and Application of Automata: 20th International Conference, CIAA 2015, Umeå, Sweden, August 18-21, 2015, Proceedings, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Kitani, T. Hara, H. Hanada, H. Sawada, A Talking Robot and Its Singing Performance by the Mimicry of Human Vocalization, in: Z.S. Hippe, J.L. Kulikowski, T. Mroczek (Eds.), Human – Computer Systems Interaction: Backgrounds and Applications 2: Part 2, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012: pp. 57–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Dentistry: X.

Blog post
K. Evans, Contrary To Popular Belief, Smiling Makes You Look Older, IFLScience. (2017).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Aviation Security: Transportation Security Administration Has Strengthened Planning to Guide Investments in Key Aviation Security Programs, but More Work Remains, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.L. Wyers, An Investigation of Teacher Understanding and Perceptions of the Effectiveness of the Use of Learning Targets in the Classroom, Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
A. Hartocollis, Two Wills, One Private Heiress, New York Times. (2013) MB1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Dentistry: X
ISSN (print)2589-7004

Other styles