How to format your references using the Journal of Crohn's and Colitis Supplements citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Crohn's and Colitis Supplements (CROSUP). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kühlbrandt W. Biochemistry. The resolution revolution. Science 2014; 343(6178): 1443–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Spalding MD., Brown BE. Warm-water coral reefs and climate change. Science 2015; 350(6262): 769–71.
A journal article with 3 authors
Elion EA., Qi M., Chen W. Signal transduction. Signaling specificity in yeast. Science 2005; 307(5710): 687–8.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Whitman K., Starfield AM., Quadling HS., Packer C. Sustainable trophy hunting of African lions. Nature 2004; 428(6979): 175–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Wen E., Ellis R., S. Pujar N. Vaccine Development and Manufacturing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Reid J. JavaScript Programmer’s Reference. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Fortmann L., Ndhlovu A., Ndlovu A., Philippe R., Rodrigue C., Wilson K. Climate Change and Social Sustainability: A Case for Polycentric Sustainabilities. In: Lal R, Kraybill D, Hansen DO, Singh BR, Mosogoya T, and Eik LO, editors. Climate Change and Multi-Dimensional Sustainability in African Agriculture: Climate Change and Sustainability in Agriculture. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 43–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Crohn's and Colitis Supplements.

Blog post
Andrew E. Oxytocin May Benefit Some Children With Autism, But It’s Not The Next Wonder Drug. IFLScience. [accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. FCC: Geographic Partitioning and Spectrum Disaggregation for the 220-222 MHz Service. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lindemann-Litzsinger C. Investigating the Possible Relationship Between Participation in High School Athletics and First-Generation College Student Persistence to College Graduation. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly J. Figuring Out Who Really Had the Last Word in the Bush White House. New York Times 2013: C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Crohn's and Colitis Supplements
ISSN (print)1873-9954
ISSN (online)1876-4460

Other styles