How to format your references using the Journal of Crohn's and Colitis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Crohn's and Colitis (CROHNS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sukhdev P. Sustainability: The corporate climate overhaul. Nature 2012;486(7401):27–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kelley NP., Pyenson ND. Vertebrate evolution. Evolutionary innovation and ecology in marine tetrapods from the Triassic to the Anthropocene. Science 2015;348(6232):aaa3716.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gaydos LJ., Wang W., Strome S. Gene repression. H3K27me and PRC2 transmit a memory of repression across generations and during development. Science 2014;345(6203):1515–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tanaka K., Kuma K., Hamasaki K., Yamashita Y. Accumulation of humic-like fluorescent dissolved organic matter in the Japan Sea. Sci Rep 2014;4:5292.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bromfield R. Doing Therapy with Children and Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Bauer L., Körtvélyessy L., Štekauer P. Semantics of Complex Words. vol. 3. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Wang L., Wu K., Hamdi M. Conclusion and Future Work. In: Wu K, and Hamdi M, editors. Attachment Transmission in Wireless Networks. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 59–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Crohn's and Colitis.

Blog post
Andrew E. Earth’s Primordial Atmosphere Lost Due To Relentless Small Impacts. IFLScience. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. NASA Personnel: Shortages of Scientists and Engineers Due to Retirements Unlikely in the 1990s. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Luna SC. An integrated treatment program for individuals with co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B. Lemon. New York Times 2017:C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Crohn's and Colitis
AbbreviationJ. Crohns. Colitis
ISSN (print)1873-9946
ISSN (online)1876-4479
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles