How to format your references using the Journal of Crohn's and Colitis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Crohn's and Colitis (CROHNS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Purnell BA. Morphogenesis. Getting into shape. Introduction. Science 2013;340(6137):1183.
A journal article with 2 authors
Johnson CM., Beard BL. Geochemistry. Biogeochemical cycling of iron isotopes. Science 2005;309(5737):1025–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wu B., Parquette JR., RajanBabu TV. Regiodivergent ring opening of chiral aziridines. Science 2009;326(5960):1662.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gacemi D., Mangeney J., Colombelli R., Degiron A. Subwavelength metallic waveguides as a tool for extreme confinement of THz surface waves. Sci Rep 2013;3:1369.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Weinstein S. The Complete Guide to Fundraising Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
Raubal M., Miller HJ., Frank AU., Goodchild MF. Geographic Information Science: 4th International Conference, GIScience 2006, Münster, Germany, September 20-23, 2006. Proceedings. vol. 4197. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Liu X., Zhao J., Feng Z. Instantaneous Motion of a 2-RCR Mechanism with Variable Mobility. In: Zhang X, Liu H, Chen Z, and Wang N, editors. Intelligent Robotics and Applications: 7th International Conference, ICIRA 2014, Guangzhou, China, December 17-20, 2014, Proceedings, Part I. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 44–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Crohn's and Colitis.

Blog post
Andrew E. How Did Palm Oil Become Such A Problem — And What Can We Do About It? IFLScience. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. IT Dashboard: Agencies Need to Fully Consider Risks When Rating Their Major Investments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shaw RM. The influence of organizational culture on employee attitudes towards information security policy. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, MN, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW. Peter Mullen, Power at a Leading Law Firm, Dies at 83. New York Times 2011:B19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Crohn's and Colitis
AbbreviationJ. Crohns. Colitis
ISSN (print)1873-9946
ISSN (online)1876-4479
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles