How to format your references using the Journal of Crohn's and Colitis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Crohn's and Colitis (CROHNS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bignami G. Why we need space travel. Nature 2009;460(7253):325.
A journal article with 2 authors
Holmes KV., Enjuanes L. Virology. The SARS coronavirus: a postgenomic era. Science 2003;300(5624):1377–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Weeks SJ., Currie B., Bakun A. Massive emissions of toxic gas in the Atlantic. Nature 2002;415(6871):493–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
McElroy K., Simmonds RW., Hoffman JE., Lee D-H., Orenstein J., Eisaki H., et al. Relating atomic-scale electronic phenomena to wave-like quasiparticle states in superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+delta. Nature 2003;422(6932):592–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Arboleda H., Royer J-C. Model-Driven and Software Product Line Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Dishovsky C., Pivovarov A., Benschop H. Medical Treatment of Intoxications and Decontamination of Chemical Agent in the Area of Terrorist Attack. vol. 1. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Christenson B., Tassi F. Gases in Volcanic Lake Environments. In: Rouwet D, Christenson B, Tassi F, and Vandemeulebrouck J, editors. Volcanic Lakes. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015. p. 125–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Crohn's and Colitis.

Blog post
Andrew E. Shark Safety Tips: Sorting Out Fact From Fiction. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. ADP Procurement: Better Capacity Planning Needed at Agriculture’s National Finance Center. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fonfa SL. The impact of increased security on the employment options and lives of people with severe disabilities. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, MN, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Peters JW., Haberman M. Charlottesville Shifted Timing Of Bannon Exit. New York Times 2017:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Crohn's and Colitis
AbbreviationJ. Crohns. Colitis
ISSN (print)1873-9946
ISSN (online)1876-4479
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles