How to format your references using the Journal of Computational Physics: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Computational Physics: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
B. Nogrady, Immunotherapy: Chemical tricks, Nature. 513 (2014) S10-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.S. Dawkins, A. Woodington, Pattern recognition and active vision in chickens, Nature. 403 (2000) 652–655.
A journal article with 3 authors
Y. Chen, R. Peng, Z. You, APPLIED ORIGAMI. Origami of thick panels, Science. 349 (2015) 396–400.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R. Okazaki, N. Takaoka, K. Nagao, M. Sekiya, T. Nakamura, Noble-gas-rich chondrules in an enstatite meteorite, Nature. 412 (2001) 795–798.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
H.-G. Elias, Macromolecules, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, D-69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2006.
An edited book
A.W. Marshall, Life Distributions: Structure of Nonparametric, Semiparametric, and Parametric Families, Springer, New York, NY, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Salehi, R. Anwar, O.H. Hassan, Reuse of Palm Oil Sludge in Stoneware: An Eco-friendly Project, in: O.H. Hassan, S.Z. Abidin, R. Anwar, M.F. Kamaruzaman (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Symposium on Research of Arts, Design and Humanities (ISRADH 2014), Springer, Singapore, 2015: pp. 43–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Computational Physics: X.

Blog post
B. Taub, Soldiers’ Brains Electrocuted To Make Them More Attentive, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Business Systems Modernization: DOD Needs to Fully Define Policies and Procedures for Institutionally Managing Investments, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K. Thompson, Paid formal caregivers and caregiver burden: A quantitative study, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, U.S. Shares the Blame for Feeling Cheated, New York Times. (2010) D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Computational Physics: X
ISSN (print)2590-0552

Other styles