How to format your references using the Journal of Children's Orthopaedics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Children's Orthopaedics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reitz SR (2007) Ecology. Invasion of the whiteflies. Science 318:1733–1734
A journal article with 2 authors
Luoto TP, Nevalainen L (2013) Long-term water temperature reconstructions from mountain lakes with different catchment and morphometric features. Sci Rep 3:2488
A journal article with 3 authors
Willis KJ, Gillson L, Brncic TM (2004) Ecology. How “virgin” is virgin rainforest? Science 304:402–403
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Wilkins C, Dishongh R, Moore SC, et al (2005) RNA interference is an antiviral defence mechanism in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nature 436:1044–1047

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Miller RE (1999) Optimization. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Lyons AC (2012) Customer-Driven Supply Chains: From Glass Pipelines to Open Innovation Networks. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
Tsekouras GE, Tsolakis DM (2013) Fuzzy Clustering-Based Vector Quantization for Image Compression. In: Chatterjee A, Siarry P (eds) Computational Intelligence in Image Processing. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 93–105

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Children's Orthopaedics.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2016) A New Estimation Of The Mass Of The Milky Way. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1995) Trans-Alaska Pipeline: Actions to Improve Safety Are Under Way. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Becknell JM (2013) Listening to narratives of war. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bogdanich W (2017) The Sheriff’s War. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Children's Orthopaedics
AbbreviationJ. Child. Orthop.
ISSN (print)1863-2521
ISSN (online)1863-2548
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Other styles