How to format your references using the Journal of Children's Orthopaedics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Children's Orthopaedics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Swanson RM (2009) Applied physics. Photovoltaics power up. Science 324:891–892
A journal article with 2 authors
Groves JT, Boaz NC (2014) Biochemistry. Fishing for peroxidase protons. Science 345:142–143
A journal article with 3 authors
Walker JJ, Spear JR, Pace NR (2005) Geobiology of a microbial endolithic community in the Yellowstone geothermal environment. Nature 434:1011–1014
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Vose RS, Karl TR, Easterling DR, et al (2004) Climate (communication arising): impact of land-use change on climate. Nature 427:213–4; discussion 214

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Good PI (2006) A Manager’s Guide to the Design and Conduct of Clinical Trials. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Hoang MP, Selim MA (2015) Vulvar Pathology. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Wear DN, Joyce LA, Butler BJ, et al (2014) Climate Change and Forest Values. In: Peterson DL, Vose JM, Patel-Weynand T (eds) Climate Change and United States Forests. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 93–112

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Children's Orthopaedics.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Tooth-Derived Stem Cells Make Brain-Like Cells. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2014) Education and Workforce Data: Challenges in Matching Student and Worker Information Raise Concerns about Longitudinal Data Systems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tanner-Anderson SL (2014) “The Road Less Traveled”: The Female’s Journey to the State Superintendency. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Urbina I, Fink S (2014) A Deadly Fungus and Questions at a Hospital. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Children's Orthopaedics
AbbreviationJ. Child. Orthop.
ISSN (print)1863-2521
ISSN (online)1863-2548
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Other styles