How to format your references using the Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2004). A dose of reality. Nature, 432(7017), 655.
A journal article with 2 authors
Allen, D., & Westerblad, H. (2004). Physiology. Lactic acid--the latest performance-enhancing drug. Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5687), 1112–1113.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zimmerman, A., Bai, L., & Ginty, D. D. (2014). The gentle touch receptors of mammalian skin. Science (New York, N.Y.), 346(6212), 950–954.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Poliakoff, M., Fitzpatrick, J. M., Farren, T. R., & Anastas, P. T. (2002). Green chemistry: science and politics of change. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5582), 807–810.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vegh, A. (2010). Web Development with the Mac®. Indianapolis, IN, USA: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
An edited book
Milano, M. (Ed.). (2012). Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming: 18th International Conference, CP 2012, Québec City, QC, Canada, October 8-12, 2012. Proceedings (Vol. 7514). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Daneshzand, F., & Shoeleh, R. (2009). Multifacility Location Problem. In R. Zanjirani Farahani & M. Hekmatfar (Eds.), Facility Location: Concepts, Models, Algorithms and Case Studies (pp. 69–92). Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag HD.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2016, May 3). Why Labradors Won’t Stop Eating. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2000). Information Technology Management: SBA Needs to Establish Policies and Procedures for Key IT Processes (No. AIMD-00-170). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rey, D. (2017). Chaos, Observability and Symplectic Structure in Optimal Estimation (Doctoral dissertation). University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bilefsky, D. (2012, August 3). Court Decides Not to Certify Ouster Vote In Romania. New York Times, p. A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Allen and Westerblad 2004; Smaglik 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Allen and Westerblad 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Poliakoff et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Child & Adolescent Trauma
AbbreviationJ. Child Adolesc. Trauma
ISSN (print)1936-1521
ISSN (online)1936-153X
ScopeCritical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
Emergency Medicine

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