How to format your references using the Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stocum, D. L. (2002). Development. A tail of transdifferentiation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5600), 1901–1903.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cassidy, L. D., & Narita, M. (2015). CELL BIOLOGY. GATA get a hold on senescence. Science (New York, N.Y.), 349(6255), 1448–1449.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sillanpää, M. A., Park, J. I., & Simmonds, R. W. (2007). Coherent quantum state storage and transfer between two phase qubits via a resonant cavity. Nature, 449(7161), 438–442.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Bivona, T. G., Hieronymus, H., Parker, J., Chang, K., Taron, M., Rosell, R., et al. (2011). FAS and NF-κB signalling modulate dependence of lung cancers on mutant EGFR. Nature, 471(7339), 523–526.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dickenson, J., Freeman, F., Mills, C. L., Sivasubramaniam, S., & Thode, C. (2012). Molecular Pharmacology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Marrón, P. J. (2012). The Emerging Domain of Cooperating Objects: Definitions and Concepts. (D. Minder & S. Karnouskos, Eds.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Vu, Q. H., Lupu, M., & Ooi, B. C. (2010). Load Balancing and Replication. In M. Lupu & B. C. Ooi (Eds.), Peer-to-Peer Computing: Principles and Applications (pp. 127–156). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, June 11). Why You Should Stack Copper Coins On Your Laptop. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2011). Department of Labor: Further Management Improvements Needed to Address Information Technology and Financial Controls (No. GAO-11-157). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McPeek, S. E. (2017). Religious Rhetoric and the Radio: The Sermons of Rev. Dr. Oswald C.J. Hoffmann, International Lutheran Hour Speaker, 1955-1985 (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Otis, J. (2016, November 27). Striving for Normalcy While Fighting Cancer. New York Times, p. A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Harberd 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Ehlers 2003; Marek 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cassidy and Narita 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Richardson et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Child & Adolescent Trauma
AbbreviationJ. Child Adolesc. Trauma
ISSN (print)1936-1521
ISSN (online)1936-153X
ScopeCritical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
Emergency Medicine

Other styles