How to format your references using the Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Socha, J. J. (2014). Applied Physics. Of snakes and robots. Science (New York, N.Y.), 346(6206), 160–161.
A journal article with 2 authors
Walter, R. C., & Merritts, D. J. (2008). Natural streams and the legacy of water-powered mills. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5861), 299–304.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chadderton, P., Margrie, T. W., & Häusser, M. (2004). Integration of quanta in cerebellar granule cells during sensory processing. Nature, 428(6985), 856–860.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Loveday, J. S., Nelmes, R. J., Guthrie, M., Belmonte, S. A., Allan, D. R., Klug, D. D., et al. (2001). Stable methane hydrate above 2 GPa and the source of Titan’s atmospheric methane. Nature, 410(6829), 661–663.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Verma, J. P. (2016). Sports Research with Analytical Solution Using SPSS®. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Javed, O. (2008). Automated Multi-Camera Surveillance: Algorithms and Practice. (M. Shah, Ed.) (Vol. 10). Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Gupta, D., & Wang, W.-Y. (2012). Patient Appointments in Ambulatory Care. In R. Hall (Ed.), Handbook of Healthcare System Scheduling (pp. 65–104). Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, September 17). Antidepressant Trial’s Upended Results Show Need For Sharing All Data. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2009). Transportation Security: Key Actions Have Been Taken to Enhance Mass Transit and Passenger Rail Security, but Opportunities Exist to Strengthen Federal Strategy and Programs (No. GAO-09-678). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nikolova, S. (2010). Health insurance transitions of SCHIP-eligible children in response to higher public premiums (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, E. (1993, November 14). Rain Dates: The Action Goes Indoors. New York Times, p. 1315.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Socha 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Socha 2014; Walter and Merritts 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Walter and Merritts 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Loveday et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Child & Adolescent Trauma
AbbreviationJ. Child Adolesc. Trauma
ISSN (print)1936-1521
ISSN (online)1936-153X
ScopeCritical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
Emergency Medicine

Other styles