How to format your references using the Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Balter, M. (2000). EUROPEAN SCIENCE: Pathogens Lab Chief Stripped of Duties. Science (New York, N.Y.), 289(5477), 228b–9b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Buckling, A., & Rainey, P. B. (2002). The role of parasites in sympatric and allopatric host diversification. Nature, 420(6915), 496–499.
A journal article with 3 authors
Blackstone, E., Morrison, M., & Roth, M. B. (2005). H2S induces a suspended animation-like state in mice. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5721), 518.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ford, M. G. J., Mills, I. G., Peter, B. J., Vallis, Y., Praefcke, G. J. K., Evans, P. R., & McMahon, H. T. (2002). Curvature of clathrin-coated pits driven by epsin. Nature, 419(6905), 361–366.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lowman, M. (2017). A Practical Guide to Analytics for Governments. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Seckbach, J., & Oren, A. (Eds.). (2010). Microbial Mats: Modern and Ancient Microorganisms in Stratified Systems (Vol. 14). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Xu, Y., & Liu, K. (2007). Evolutionary Grooming of Traffic in WDM Optical Networks. In L. C. Jain, V. Palade, & D. Srinivasan (Eds.), Advances in Evolutionary Computing for System Design (pp. 95–137). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, May 1). 33 Rescued Circus Lions Are Returning To Africa By Airplane. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1979). Social Security Student Benefits for Postsecondary Students Should Be Discontinued (No. HRD-79-108). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hayes, M. G. (2010). A qualitative case study of cultural competency among Advanced Placement teachers in Florida (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. (2007, April 29). The Right Look Gives A Home a Second Act. New York Times, p. WE6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Balter 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Balter 2000; Buckling and Rainey 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Buckling and Rainey 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Ford et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Child & Adolescent Trauma
AbbreviationJ. Child Adolesc. Trauma
ISSN (print)1936-1521
ISSN (online)1936-153X
ScopeCritical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
Emergency Medicine

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