How to format your references using the Journal of Cataract & Refractive Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Cataract & Refractive Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nebel CE. Chemistry. Surface-conducting diamond. Science. 2007;318(5855):1391-1392.
A journal article with 2 authors
Warren LA, Kauffman ME. Geoscience. Microbial geoengineers. Science. 2003;299(5609):1027-1029.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kuhlenkoetter S, Wintermeyer W, Rodnina MV. Different substrate-dependent transition states in the active site of the ribosome. Nature. 2011;476(7360):351-354.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gordon JM, Feuermann D, Huleihil M, Mizrahi S, Shaco-Levy R. Fibre optics: surgery by sunlight on live animals. Nature. 2003;424(6948):510.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nathanail CP, Bardos RP. Reclamation of Contaminated Land. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
Rewizorski M, ed. The European Union and the BRICS: Complex Relations in the Era of Global Governance. Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Dalamagkidis K, Valavanis KP, Piegl LA. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Regulation. In: Valavanis KP, Piegl LA, eds. On Integrating Unmanned Aircraft Systems into the National Airspace System: Issues, Challenges, Operational Restrictions, Certification, and Recommendations. Springer Netherlands; 2012:57-90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Cataract & Refractive Surgery.

Blog post
Andrew E. Great Barrier Reef Bleaching Is Just One Symptom Of Ecosystem Collapse Across Australia. IFLScience. Published May 3, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: The District of Columbia Faces Tremendous Challenges in Ensuring Vital Services Are Not Disrupted. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Warwick-Smith KM. Remembering Prudence: Tracking the Iconography of a Cardinal Virtue to Her Resurgence in Depth Psychology. Published online 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard B. With Driving Ban Ending, Saudis Wonder Which Rules Will Fall Next. New York Times. September 27, 2017:A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Cataract & Refractive Surgery
AbbreviationJ. Cataract Refract. Surg.
ISSN (print)0886-3350
ISSN (online)1873-4502
Sensory Systems

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