How to format your references using the Journal of Business & Economic Statistics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Business & Economic Statistics (JBES). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bohannon, J. (2008), “The Gonzo Scientist. Can scientists dance?,” Science (New York, N.Y.), 319, 905.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schofield, R. M. S., and Nesson, M. H. (2003), “Comment on ‘High abrasion resistance with sparse mineralization: copper biomineral in worm jaws,’” Science (New York, N.Y.), 301, 1049; author reply 1049.
A journal article with 3 authors
Arjona, A., Escudero, M., and Gómez, C. M. (2014), “Updating of attentional and premotor allocation resources as function of previous trial outcome,” Scientific reports, 4, 4526.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Reay, D., Sabine, C., Smith, P., and Hymus, G. (2007), “Climate change 2007: spring-time for sinks,” Nature, 446, 727–728.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rezg, N., Dellagi, S., and Khatab, A. (2014), Joint Optimization of Maintenance and Production Policies, Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Leondes, C. T. (ed.) (2005), Intelligent Knowledge-Based Systems: Business and Technology in the New Millennium, Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Einav, I., and Nguyen, G. D. (2009), “Micromechanical alternatives to phenomenological hardening plasticity,” in Mechanics of Natural Solids, eds. D. Kolymbas and G. Viggiani, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 85–104.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Business & Economic Statistics.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016), “Wind Instrument Players Warned Over Hygiene After Man Is Killed By His Bagpipes,” IFLScience, IFLScience, Available at


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1988), The Management and Operation of FCC’s Public Reference Rooms, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ponder, K. (2017), “Easing Stress by Helping Others: How Corporate Volunteer Programs Impact the Stress of Employees Within an Organization,” Doctoral dissertation, Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2006), “In Death Row Case, Justices Order Retrial Over Evidence,” New York Times, A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bohannon 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Bohannon 2008; Schofield and Nesson 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schofield and Nesson 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Reay et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Business & Economic Statistics
AbbreviationJ. Bus. Econ. Stat.
ISSN (print)0735-0015
ISSN (online)1537-2707
ScopeStatistics, Probability and Uncertainty
Economics and Econometrics
Statistics and Probability
Social Sciences (miscellaneous)

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