How to format your references using the Journal of Business & Economic Statistics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Business & Economic Statistics (JBES). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lipton, S. A. (2004), “Turning down, but not off,” Nature, 428, 473.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zwiers, F. W., and Weaver, A. J. (2000), “CLIMATE CHANGE: The Causes of 20th Century Warming,” Science (New York, N.Y.), 290, 2081–2083.
A journal article with 3 authors
Toda, S., Stein, R. S., and Sagiya, T. (2002), “Evidence from the AD 2000 Izu islands earthquake swarm that stressing rate governs seismicity,” Nature, 419, 58–61.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Vitousek, P. M., Ladefoged, T. N., Kirch, P. V., Hartshorn, A. S., Graves, M. W., Hotchkiss, S. C., Tuljapurkar, S., and Chadwick, O. A. (2004), “Soils, agriculture, and society in precontact Hawai’i,” Science (New York, N.Y.), 304, 1665–1669.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kääriäinen, T., Cameron, D., Kääriäinen, M.-L., and Sherman, A. (2013), Atomic Layer Deposition, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Handke, V. (2013), Flexible Ridesharing: New Opportunities and Service Concepts for Sustainable Mobility, (H. Jonuschat, ed.), Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bloem, R., Hein, D., Röck, F., and Schumi, R. (2015), “Case Study: Automatic Test Case Generation for a Secure Cache Implementation,” in Tests and Proofs: 9th International Conference, TAP 2015, Held as Part of STAF 2015, L’Aquila, Italy, July 22-24, 2015. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, eds. J. C. Blanchette and N. Kosmatov, Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 58–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Business & Economic Statistics.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016), “Indonesia Sets Fire To Endangered Stuffed Animals In Their Fight Against Poachers,” IFLScience, IFLScience, Available at


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999), Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Education Taking Needed Actions But Work Remains, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lanigan, L. G. (2012), “Effects of Two Cancer Genes, HTLV-1 Tax and E-Cadherin, on Cancer Development and Progression,” Doctoral dissertation, Columbus, OH: Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2007), “Justices, Voting 5-4, Limit the Use of Race In Integration Plans,” New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lipton 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Lipton 2004; Zwiers and Weaver 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zwiers and Weaver 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Vitousek et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Business & Economic Statistics
AbbreviationJ. Bus. Econ. Stat.
ISSN (print)0735-0015
ISSN (online)1537-2707
ScopeStatistics, Probability and Uncertainty
Economics and Econometrics
Statistics and Probability
Social Sciences (miscellaneous)

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