How to format your references using the Journal of Biotechnology: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Biotechnology: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clutton-Brock, T., 2009. Cooperation between non-kin in animal societies. Nature 462, 51–57.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chameides, W., Oppenheimer, M., 2007. Climate change. Carbon trading over taxes. Science 315, 1670.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ye, F., Burns, M.J., Naughton, M.J., 2014. Structured metal thin film as an asymmetric color filter: the forward and reverse plasmonic halos. Sci. Rep. 4, 7267.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Woods, N.-B., Bottero, V., Schmidt, M., von Kalle, C., Verma, I.M., 2006. Gene therapy: therapeutic gene causing lymphoma. Nature 440, 1123.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Drago, C., 2015. Implant Restorations. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Kovacevic, R.M., Pflug, G.C., Vespucci, M.T. (Eds.), 2013. Handbook of Risk Management in Energy Production and Trading, International Series in Operations Research & Management Science. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Naude, W., 2010. Forced Migration from Sub-Saharan Africa: The Conflict–Environment Link, in: Afifi, T., Jäger, J. (Eds.), Environment, Forced Migration and Social Vulnerability. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 43–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Biotechnology: X.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2015. Climate Change Will Lead To Grim Future For Marine Ecosystems [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1992. Mission Support Project: User Perceptions on Computer Use and Network Operations (No. OIMC-92-4). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Giuseffi, F.G., 2014. Investigation of the Influence of the Socratic Method on Leadership Skills among JROTC Cadet Leaders at a Military Boarding School (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J., 2016. ‘I Am Cait,’ Failing to Attract Viewers, Is Ending After Two Seasons. New York Times C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Clutton-Brock, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Chameides and Oppenheimer, 2007; Clutton-Brock, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chameides and Oppenheimer, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Woods et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Biotechnology: X
ISSN (print)2590-1559

Other styles