How to format your references using the Journal of Biotechnology: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Biotechnology: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kerp, H., 2002. Atmospheric CO2 from fossil plant cuticles. Nature 415, 38.
A journal article with 2 authors
Spilianakis, C.G., Flavell, R.A., 2006. Molecular biology. Managing associations between different chromosomes. Science 312, 207–208.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hay Burgess, D.C., Wasserman, J., Dahl, C.A., 2006. Global health diagnostics. Nature 444 Suppl 1, 1–2.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lee, W., Jiang, Z., Liu, J., Haverty, P.M., Guan, Y., Stinson, J., Yue, P., Zhang, Y., Pant, K.P., Bhatt, D., Ha, C., Johnson, S., Kennemer, M.I., Mohan, S., Nazarenko, I., Watanabe, C., Sparks, A.B., Shames, D.S., Gentleman, R., de Sauvage, F.J., Stern, H., Pandita, A., Ballinger, D.G., Drmanac, R., Modrusan, Z., Seshagiri, S., Zhang, Z., 2010. The mutation spectrum revealed by paired genome sequences from a lung cancer patient. Nature 465, 473–477.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chernick, M.R., 2011. The Essentials of Biostatistics for Physicians, Nurses, and Clinicians. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Olivi, G., Olivi, M. (Eds.), 2015. Lasers in Restorative Dentistry: A Practical Guide. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Xiao, J.J., 2008. Applying Behavior Theories to Financial Behavior, in: Xiao, J.J. (Ed.), Handbook of Consumer Finance Research. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 69–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Biotechnology: X.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2014. What Happens When You Give A Squirrel A GoPro? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1980. Requirements for Recurring Reports to the Congress (No. PAD-80-49). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bennett, C.A., 2012. The stigma of mental illness as experienced by mental health professionals as patients: A phenomenological study (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Powell, M., 2017. Always A ‘Shadow’ To Beat. New York Times D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kerp, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Kerp, 2002; Spilianakis and Flavell, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Spilianakis and Flavell, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Lee et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Biotechnology: X
ISSN (print)2590-1559

Other styles