How to format your references using the Journal of Biotechnology: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Biotechnology: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Taylor, W.R., 2005. Stirring the primordial soup. Nature 434, 705.
A journal article with 2 authors
Supek, F., Lehner, B., 2015. Differential DNA mismatch repair underlies mutation rate variation across the human genome. Nature 521, 81–84.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ledderose, J., Dieter, S., Schwarz, M.K., 2013. Maturation of postnatally generated olfactory bulb granule cells depends on functional γ-protocadherin expression. Sci. Rep. 3, 1514.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wolpoff, M.H., Senut, B., Pickford, M., Hawks, J., 2002. Palaeoanthropology. Sahelanthropus or “Sahelpithecus”? Nature 419, 581–2; discussion 582.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wolf, E.L., Medikonda, M., 2012. Understanding the Nanotechnology Revolution. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Nikulin, M., 2016. The Cox Model and Its Applications, SpringerBriefs in Statistics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Jacques, S.L., 2011. Monte Carlo Modeling of Light Transport in Tissue (Steady State and Time of Flight), in: Welch, A.J., Gemert, M.J.C. van (Eds.), Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 109–144.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Biotechnology: X.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2016. The Common Ancestor Of All Life On Earth Lived In Hot Springs [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1996. Improving Federal Performance in the Information Age Issue Area Plan: Fiscal Years 1996-98 (No. IAP-96-8). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Espinoza, E., 2015. Understanding help-seeking behavior among at-risk Latino male high school students (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2011. Scandinavian Cool That Warmed New York. New York Times B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Taylor, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Supek and Lehner, 2015; Taylor, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Supek and Lehner, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Wolpoff et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Biotechnology: X
ISSN (print)2590-1559

Other styles