How to format your references using the Journal of Biomedical Informatics: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Biomedical Informatics: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
K.E. Yutzey, Regenerative biology: Neuregulin 1 makes heart muscle, Nature. 520 (2015) 445–446.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. Gillon, D. Yakir, Influence of carbonic anhydrase activity in terrestrial vegetation on the 18O content of atmospheric CO2, Science. 291 (2001) 2584–2587.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. Ghimire, E. Shafran, J.M. Gerton, Using a sharp metal tip to control the polarization and direction of emission from a quantum dot, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6456.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H.-J. Han, J. Russo, Y. Kohwi, T. Kohwi-Shigematsu, SATB1 reprogrammes gene expression to promote breast tumour growth and metastasis, Nature. 452 (2008) 187–193.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.-F. Sigrist, Fluid-Structure Interaction, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2015.
An edited book
G.V. Coyne, A Comprehensible Universe: The Interplay of Science and Theology, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
R.J. Estes, H. Tiliouine, Social Progress in Islamic Societies: Achievements and Challenges, in: H. Tiliouine, R.J. Estes (Eds.), The State of Social Progress of Islamic Societies: Social, Economic, Political, and Ideological Challenges, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 69–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Biomedical Informatics: X.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Teenage Girl Had To Stay Awake For Four Days After Parasite Started Eating Her Eyeball, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Space Station: National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s 1987 Cost Estimate, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
T.M. Forshey, Neural basis of the neurological diagnostic power of vibrotactile sensory testing, Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
E. Barry, Harsh Light Falls on Bolshoi After Acid Attack, New York Times. (2013) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Biomedical Informatics: X
ISSN (print)2590-177X

Other styles