How to format your references using the Journal of Adventure Education & Outdoor Learning citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Adventure Education & Outdoor Learning. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Harris, N. (2015). Immunology: Chronic effects of acute infections. Nature, 526(7574), 509–510.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ding, L., & Morrison, S. J. (2013). Haematopoietic stem cells and early lymphoid progenitors occupy distinct bone marrow niches. Nature, 495(7440), 231–235.
A journal article with 3 authors
Goodman, D. B., Church, G. M., & Kosuri, S. (2013). Causes and effects of N-terminal codon bias in bacterial genes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 342(6157), 475–479.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kuznetsov, A. E., Birch, K. A., Boldyrev, A. I., Li, X., Zhai, H.-J., & Wang, L.-S. (2003). All-metal antiaromatic molecule: rectangular Al4(4-) in the Li3Al4(-) anion. Science (New York, N.Y.), 300(5619), 622–625.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lippold, J. C. (2015). Welding Metallurgy and Weldability. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Canuto, C. (2015). Mathematical Analysis II (A. Tabacco, Ed.; Second Edition, Vol. 85). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Sendín, M., & Lorés, J. (2006). Remote Support to Plastic User Interfaces: a Semantic View. In R. Navarro-Prieto & J. L. Vidal (Eds.), HCI related papers of Interacción 2004 (pp. 55–70). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Adventure Education & Outdoor Learning.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2015, November 13). Astronomers Detects Wind Speeds Of 5,400mph On Distant Exoplanet. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1981). Request for Comments on Proposed Amendment (B-203547). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moulder, J. C. (2010). Comparative analgesic effects of prepulse inhibition and reduced voltage waveforms in defibrillation [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2000, November 19). Not Quite Creatures From Outer Space. New York Times, 146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Harris, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Ding & Morrison, 2013; Harris, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ding & Morrison, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Goodman et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Kuznetsov et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Adventure Education & Outdoor Learning
ISSN (print)1472-9679
ISSN (online)1754-0402
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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