How to format your references using the Journal of Adventure Education & Outdoor Learning citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Adventure Education & Outdoor Learning. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brooks, R. (2001). The relationship between matter and life. Nature, 409(6818), 409–411.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hagoort, P., & Levelt, W. J. M. (2009). Neuroscience. The speaking brain. Science (New York, N.Y.), 326(5951), 372–373.
A journal article with 3 authors
d’Aignaux, J. N., Cousens, S. N., & Smith, P. G. (2001). Predictability of the UK variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease epidemic. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5547), 1729–1731.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Fletcher, L. N., Hesman, B. E., Irwin, P. G. J., Baines, K. H., Momary, T. W., Sanchez-Lavega, A., Flasar, F. M., Read, P. L., Orton, G. S., Simon-Miller, A., Hueso, R., Bjoraker, G. L., Mamoutkine, A., del Rio-Gaztelurrutia, T., Gomez, J. M., Buratti, B., Clark, R. N., Nicholson, P. D., & Sotin, C. (2011). Thermal structure and dynamics of Saturn’s northern springtime disturbance. Science (New York, N.Y.), 332(6036), 1413–1417.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fernandez-Maloigne, C., Robert-Inacio, F., & Macaire, L. (2012). Digital Color. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bremer, E. G., Hakenberg, J., Han, E.-H. (sam), Berrar, D., & Dubitzky, W. (Eds.). (2006). Knowledge Discovery in Life Science Literature: PAKDD 2006 International Workshop, KDLL 2006, Singapore, April 9, 2006. Proceedings (Vol. 3886). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bacellar Filho, R. F. B., & Friedrich, T. S. (2016). Foreign Administrative Acts in Brazil. In J. Rodríguez-Arana Muñoz (Ed.), Recognition of Foreign Administrative Acts (pp. 91–101). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Adventure Education & Outdoor Learning.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, July 22). New Alzheimer’s Drug Shows Promise. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2009). Commuter Rail: Many Factors Influence Liability and Indemnity Provisions, and Options Exist to Facilitate Negotiations (GAO-09-282). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Breska, J. (2013). Mentoring for juvenile gang members and at-risk youth: A grant proposal project [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Haberman, M., & Landler, M. (2017, July 13). In Paris, Trump Stands by His Son and Praises Macron. New York Times, A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brooks, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Brooks, 2001; Hagoort & Levelt, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hagoort & Levelt, 2009)
  • Three authors: (d’Aignaux et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Fletcher et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Adventure Education & Outdoor Learning
ISSN (print)1472-9679
ISSN (online)1754-0402
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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