How to format your references using the Journal of Adventure Education & Outdoor Learning citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Adventure Education & Outdoor Learning. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zhou, M. (2013). Materials science. Exceptional properties by design. Science (New York, N.Y.), 339(6124), 1161–1162.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hågvar, S., & Ohlson, M. (2013). Ancient carbon from a melting glacier gives high 14C age in living pioneer invertebrates. Scientific Reports, 3, 2820.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hovenden, M. J., Newton, P. C. D., & Wills, K. E. (2014). Seasonal not annual rainfall determines grassland biomass response to carbon dioxide. Nature, 511(7511), 583–586.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Xue, T., Do, M. T. H., Riccio, A., Jiang, Z., Hsieh, J., Wang, H. C., … Yau, K.-W. (2011). Melanopsin signalling in mammalian iris and retina. Nature, 479(7371), 67–73.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Carrega, P. (2010). Geographical Information and Climatology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bramer, M., Coenen, F., & Petridis, M. (Eds.). (2008). Research and Development in Intelligent Systems XXIV: Proceedings of AI-2007, the Twenty-seventh SGAI International Conference on Innovative Techniques and Applications of Artificial Intelligence. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Beigi, P. K. M., & Maverakis, E. (2015). Diagnosis. In E. Maverakis (Ed.), Acrodermatitis Enteropathica: A Clinician’s Guide (pp. 43–53). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Adventure Education & Outdoor Learning.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 27). In Defence Of Ecovillages: The Communities That Can Teach The World To Live Sustainably. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1986). Bigeye Bomb: An Evaluation of DOD’s Chemical and Developmental Tests (No. PEMD-86-12BR). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shirley, A. (2012). Connecting foster children with their siblings within a summer camp setting: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2009, May 3). Justice Unbound. New York Times, p. WK1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zhou, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Hågvar & Ohlson, 2013; Zhou, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hågvar & Ohlson, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Hovenden, Newton, & Wills, 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Xue et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Adventure Education & Outdoor Learning
ISSN (print)1472-9679
ISSN (online)1754-0402
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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