How to format your references using the Japan & The World Economy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Japan & The World Economy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Haggard, P., 2009. Neuroscience. The sources of human volition. Science 324, 731–733.
A journal article with 2 authors
Reimann, J.D.R., Jackson, P.K., 2002. Emi1 is required for cytostatic factor arrest in vertebrate eggs. Nature 416, 850–854.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pakull, M.W., Soria, R., Motch, C., 2010. A 300-parsec-long jet-inflated bubble around a powerful microquasar in the galaxy NGC 7793. Nature 466, 209–212.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Menuz, K., Stroud, R.M., Nicoll, R.A., Hays, F.A., 2007. TARP auxiliary subunits switch AMPA receptor antagonists into partial agonists. Science 318, 815–817.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wind, Y.J., Hays, C.F., 2015. Beyond Advertising. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Boos, N., Aebi, M. (Eds.), 2008. Spinal Disorders: Fundamentals of Diagnosis and Treatment. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Hoh, B.L., Fargen, K.M., O’Connor, T., 2016. Hemicraniectomy, in: Ovbiagele, B. (Ed.), Ischemic Stroke Therapeutics: A Comprehensive Guide. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 45–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Japan & The World Economy.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2016. Lost In Translation: Five Common English Phrases You May Be Using Incorrectly [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2008. Digital Television Transition: Broadcasters’ Transition Status, Low-Power Station Issues, and Information on Consumer Awareness of the DTV Transition (No. GAO-08-881T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barrie, D.B., 2010. On the interaction of wind energy with climate and weather (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Santora, M., Weiser, B., 2016. Charges That Bronx Man Tried to Join ISIS Show Shift in Terror Cases. New York Times A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Haggard, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Haggard, 2009; Reimann and Jackson, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Reimann and Jackson, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Menuz et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJapan & The World Economy
AbbreviationJapan World Econ.
ISSN (print)0922-1425
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
Political Science and International Relations

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