How to format your references using the Japan & The World Economy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Japan & The World Economy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kahn, C.R., 2008. Medicine. Can we nip obesity in its vascular bud? Science 322, 542–543.
A journal article with 2 authors
Berndt, J.D., Moon, R.T., 2013. Cell biology. Making a point with Wnt signals. Science 339, 1388–1389.
A journal article with 3 authors
Long, J.C.S., Loy, F., Morgan, M.G., 2015. Policy: Start research on climate engineering. Nature 518, 29–31.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hoeflich, K.P., Luo, J., Rubie, E.A., Tsao, M.S., Jin, O., Woodgett, J.R., 2000. Requirement for glycogen synthase kinase-3beta in cell survival and NF-kappaB activation. Nature 406, 86–90.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kramer-Moore, D., Moore, M., 2012. Destructive Myths in Family Therapy. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Anantharamaiah, G.M., Goldberg, D. (Eds.), 2015. Apolipoprotein Mimetics in the Management of Human Disease. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Sanchez-Infantes, D., Elks, C.M., Stephens, J.M., 2014. Pathophysiology of Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome: Rodent Models, in: Mullin, G.E., Cheskin, L.J., Matarese, L.E. (Eds.), Integrative Weight Management: A Guide for Clinicians. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 35–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Japan & The World Economy.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2015. First Signs Of Global Warming Appeared In 1940s [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1974. Head Start Program (No. B-157356). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Browning, A., 2012. An electronic on-board recorder for intermodal drayage operations (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Greenhouse, L., 2007. Guantánamo Detainees Enjoy Historic Protections, Administration Says. New York Times A29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kahn, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Berndt and Moon, 2013; Kahn, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Berndt and Moon, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Hoeflich et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleJapan & The World Economy
AbbreviationJapan World Econ.
ISSN (print)0922-1425
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
Political Science and International Relations

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