How to format your references using the Japan & The World Economy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Japan & The World Economy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Anand, P., 2002. Public health. Decision-making when science is ambiguous. Science 295, 1839.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ramachandran, V., Chen, X., 2008. Degradation of microRNAs by a family of exoribonucleases in Arabidopsis. Science 321, 1490–1492.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhao, M.-H., Chen, X.-P., Wang, Q., 2014. Wetting failure of hydrophilic surfaces promoted by surface roughness. Sci. Rep. 4, 5376.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yu, H., Lu, C., Tieu, A.K., Godbole, A., Su, L., Sun, Y., Liu, M., Tang, D., Kong, C., 2013. Fabrication of ultra-thin nanostructured bimetallic foils by Accumulative Roll Bonding and Asymmetric Rolling. Sci. Rep. 3, 2373.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wolf, E.L., Medikonda, M., 2012. Understanding the Nanotechnology Revolution. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Perner, P. (Ed.), 2010. Advances in Data Mining. Applications and Theoretical Aspects: 10th Industrial Conference, ICDM 2010, Berlin, Germany, July 12-14, 2010. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Miller, R.R., 2013. Ethanol-Induced Lipid Peroxidation and Apoptosis in Embryopathy, in: Watson, R.R., Preedy, V.R., Zibadi, S. (Eds.), Alcohol, Nutrition, and Health Consequences. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp. 35–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Japan & The World Economy.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2015. 20 Million-Year-Old Flea Could Contain Ancient Ancestor Of Bubonic Plague [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1997. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Success Depends Upon Strong Management and Structured Approach (No. T-AIMD-97-173). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Malkus, N., 2012. Beneath the district averages: Intradistrict differences in teacher compensation expenditures (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G.G., 2016. She’s Quite a Character. New York Times D11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Anand, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Anand, 2002; Ramachandran and Chen, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ramachandran and Chen, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Yu et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJapan & The World Economy
AbbreviationJapan World Econ.
ISSN (print)0922-1425
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
Political Science and International Relations

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