How to format your references using the Japan & The World Economy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Japan & The World Economy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McNally, R.J., 2006. Psychology. Psychiatric casualties of war. Science 313, 923–924.
A journal article with 2 authors
Herzog, R.W., Ostrov, D.A., 2012. Immunology. A decorated virus cannot hide. Science 338, 748–749.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cao, Y.C., Jin, R., Mirkin, C.A., 2002. Nanoparticles with Raman spectroscopic fingerprints for DNA and RNA detection. Science 297, 1536–1540.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, K., Titchener, J.G., Kruk, S.S., Xu, L., Chung, H.-P., Parry, M., Kravchenko, I.I., Chen, Y.-H., Solntsev, A.S., Kivshar, Y.S., Neshev, D.N., Sukhorukov, A.A., 2018. Quantum metasurface for multiphoton interference and state reconstruction. Science 361, 1104–1108.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
The Family Firm Institute, Inc., 2013. Family Enterprise. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Nawrat, A., Simek, K., Świerniak, A. (Eds.), 2013. Advanced Technologies for Intelligent Systems of National Border Security, Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Alaniz, J., 2016. Standing Orders: Oracle, Disability, and Retconning, in: Foss, C., Gray, J.W., Whalen, Z. (Eds.), Disability in Comic Books and Graphic Narratives. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, pp. 59–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Japan & The World Economy.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2016. Parasitic Mites Pick The Most Nutritious Honeybees [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1989. Federal Research: The SEMATECH Consortium’s Start-up Activities (No. RCED-90-37). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Contreras, A.G., 2009. A reproductive health program for the Latino adolescent community: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bowley, G., 2016. Master of Trades, if Not Art, Says He Was Duped. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McNally, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Herzog and Ostrov, 2012; McNally, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Herzog and Ostrov, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleJapan & The World Economy
AbbreviationJapan World Econ.
ISSN (print)0922-1425
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
Political Science and International Relations

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