How to format your references using the JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging (JCMG). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abbott A. Anthropologists cast doubt on human DNA evidence. Nature 2003;423(6939):468.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cui X-D., Zheng Y. Unification of the family of Garrison-Wright’s phases. Sci Rep 2014;4:5813.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gratson GM., Xu M., Lewis JA. Microperiodic structures: direct writing of three-dimensional webs. Nature 2004;428(6981):386.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Choi T., Lee S., Choi YJ., Kiryukhin V., Cheong S-W. Switchable ferroelectric diode and photovoltaic effect in BiFeO3. Science 2009;324(5923):63–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Drago C. Implant Restorations. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Schroeder D., Cook Lucas J. Benefit Sharing: From Biodiversity to Human Genetics. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Vormbaum T., Bohlander M. § 5 The Twentieth Century. In: Bohlander M, editor. A Modern History of German Criminal Law. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014. p. 127–249.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging.

Blog post
Andrew E. Skeleton Dated To 3.67 Million Years Old. IFLScience. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Comments on Legality of NASA Contracts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1967.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gonzales RA. Health care team effectiveness: The relationship between team task interdependence and group emotional competence. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B. Cardi B Knocks Swift Out of the No. 1 Spot. New York Times 2017:C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleJACC: Cardiovascular Imaging
AbbreviationJACC Cardiovasc. Imaging
ISSN (print)1936-878X
ISSN (online)1876-7591
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles