How to format your references using the IZA Journal of Labor & Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IZA Journal of Labor & Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rohn J (2010) Women scientists must speak out. Nature 468:733
A journal article with 2 authors
Caliskan S, Laref A (2014) Spin transport properties of n-polyacene molecules (n = 1-15) connected to Ni surface electrodes: theoretical analysis. Sci Rep 4:7363
A journal article with 3 authors
Longrich NR, Bhullar B-AS, Gauthier JA (2012) A transitional snake from the Late Cretaceous period of North America. Nature 488:205–208
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Smith KL Jr, Robison BH, Helly JJ, et al (2007) Free-drifting icebergs: hot spots of chemical and biological enrichment in the Weddell Sea. Science 317:478–482

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hochberg Z (2011) Evo-Devo of Child Growth. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Celletti A, Ferraz-Mello S (eds) (2006) Periodic, Quasi-Periodic and Chaotic Motions in Celestial Mechanics: Theory and Applications: Selected papers from the Fourth Meeting on Celestial Mechanics, CELMEC IV San Martino al Cimino (Italy), 11–16 September 2005. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Shimomura Y, Watanabe K, Akasaka F, Kimita K (2011) Fan Out of Japanese Service Engineering - the State of the Art -. In: Hesselbach J, Herrmann C (eds) Functional Thinking for Value Creation: Proceedings of the 3rd CIRP International Conference on Industrial Product Service Systems, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany, May 5th - 6th, 2011. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 15–20

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IZA Journal of Labor & Development.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Young Galaxy Baffles Astronomers. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2010) Postsecondary Education: College and University Endowments Have Shown Long-Term Growth, While Size, Restrictions, and Distributions Vary. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hendricks J (2017) Playing-With the World: Toy Story’s Aesthetics and Metaphysics of Play. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams J (2017) Who Says Religion and Science Don’t Mix? New York Times C5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rohn 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Rohn 2010; Caliskan and Laref 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Caliskan and Laref 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Smith et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleIZA Journal of Labor & Development
ISSN (online)2193-9020

Other styles