How to format your references using the IZA Journal of Labor & Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IZA Journal of Labor & Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Aebersold R (2003) Constellations in a cellular universe. Nature 422:115–116
A journal article with 2 authors
Snyder M, Gerstein M (2003) Genomics. Defining genes in the genomics era. Science 300:258–260
A journal article with 3 authors
Vannucchi P, Remitti F, Bettelli G (2008) Geological record of fluid flow and seismogenesis along an erosive subducting plate boundary. Nature 451:699–703
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Jiao Z, Chen T, Xiong J, et al (2013) Visible-light-driven photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic performances of Cr-doped SrTiO3/TiO2 heterostructured nanotube arrays. Sci Rep 3:2720

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Balan V, Neagu M (2011) Jet Single-Time Lagrange Geometry and Its Applications. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Schwetje G (2007) The Business Plan: How to Win Your Investors’ Confidence. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Croese M, Westerman W (2015) OPEC’s Influence on European Oil Stock Returns. In: Dorsman A, Westerman W, Simpson JL (eds) Energy Technology and Valuation Issues. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 57–80

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IZA Journal of Labor & Development.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Nepal Earthquake: Such Huge Aftershocks Are Rare. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2009) National Airspace System: FAA Reauthorization Issues are Critical to System Transformation and Operations. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Crosby WO (2013) ATI v. Colorado: How the Commerce Clause Provides Guidance at the Confluence of Energy, Environmental, and Constitutional Law. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sophia Kishkovsky; Compiled by (2005) Arts, Briefly; Returning Seized Art. New York Times E2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Aebersold 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Aebersold 2003; Snyder and Gerstein 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Snyder and Gerstein 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Jiao et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleIZA Journal of Labor & Development
ISSN (online)2193-9020

Other styles