How to format your references using the Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ihde D. Putting technology in its place. Nature. 2000;404(6781):935.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gerde E, Marder M. Friction and fracture. Nature. 2001;413(6853):285-288.
A journal article with 3 authors
Burke M, Hsiang SM, Miguel E. Global non-linear effect of temperature on economic production. Nature. 2015;527(7577):235-239.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wong K-K, Maser RS, Bachoo RM, et al. Telomere dysfunction and Atm deficiency compromises organ homeostasis and accelerates ageing. Nature. 2003;421(6923):643-648.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ghaye T. Developing the Reflective Healthcare Team. Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
Wang L, Shafiq B, eds. Data and Applications Security and Privacy XXVII: 27th Annual IFIP WG 11.3 Conference, DBSec 2013, Newark, NJ, USA, July 15-17, 2013. Proceedings. Vol 7964. Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Ripp SL. Induction of Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes: Contrasting Roles in Detoxification and Bioactivation of Drugs and Xenobiotics. In: Elfarra A, ed. Advances in Bioactivation Research. Springer; 2008:1-34.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.

Blog post
Luntz S. Mysteriously Hot “Blue Hook” Stars Explained. IFLScience. Published June 23, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: Challenges Exist in Stabilizing and Enhancing Passenger and Baggage Screening Operations. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
White AE. Female ministers in pastoral leadership: A phenomenological study. Published online 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander S. Taking Life to the Edge, And Spins and Jumps, Too. New York Times. October 8, 2002:D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
AbbreviationInvest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
ISSN (online)1552-5783

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