How to format your references using the Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Thomas RH. Evolution. Wingless insects and plucked chickens. Science. 2003;299(5614):1854-1855.
A journal article with 2 authors
de Bono JS, Ashworth A. Translating cancer research into targeted therapeutics. Nature. 2010;467(7315):543-549.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brown T, Sibbett W, Wright EM. Laser physics. Getting to grips with light. Science. 2001;293(5533):1265-1267.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ferrari de Andrade L, Tay RE, Pan D, et al. Antibody-mediated inhibition of MICA and MICB shedding promotes NK cell-driven tumor immunity. Science. 2018;359(6383):1537-1542.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tadros TF. Colloids in Paints. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2010.
An edited book
Ortega J, ed. Sociality in Bats. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Teich T, Militzer J, Jahn F, Neumann T, Kretz D. Step Standardized Product Data Representation and Exchange for Optimized Product Development and Automated Process Planning. In: Huang GQ, Mak KL, Maropoulos PG, eds. Proceedings of the 6th CIRP-Sponsored International Conference on Digital Enterprise Technology. Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010:41-56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Experiment Proves Einstein Wrong. IFLScience. Published November 16, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. International Space Station (ISS) - Ongoing Assessments for Life Extension Appear to Be Supported. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Partma L. Media: Pretrial publicity and its effects. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M. Mexico Official Resigns. New York Times. March 17, 2012:D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
AbbreviationInvest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
ISSN (online)1552-5783

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