How to format your references using the Investigaciones Europeas de Dirección y Economía de la Empresa citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Investigaciones Europeas de Dirección y Economía de la Empresa. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rowe, D. (2007). Sustainability. Education for a sustainable future. Science (New York, N.Y.), 317(5836), 323–324.
A journal article with 2 authors
Richardson, D., & Sawers, G. (2002). Structural biology. PMF through the redox loop. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5561), 1842–1843.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mansouri, F. A., Buckley, M. J., & Tanaka, K. (2007). Mnemonic function of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in conflict-induced behavioral adjustment. Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5852), 987–990.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Rink, J. C., Gurley, K. A., Elliott, S. A., & Sánchez Alvarado, A. (2009). Planarian Hh signaling regulates regeneration polarity and links Hh pathway evolution to cilia. Science (New York, N.Y.), 326(5958), 1406–1410.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bakshi, A. B., & Prasanna, V. K. (2007). Architecture-Independent Programming for Wireless Sensor Networks. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
MaKinster, J., Trautmann, N., & Barnett, M. (Eds.). (2014). Teaching Science and Investigating Environmental Issues with Geospatial Technology: Designing Effective Professional Development for Teachers. Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Lowe, R., & Kiryazov, K. (2014). Utilizing Emotions in Autonomous Robots: An Enactive Approach. In T. Bosse, J. Broekens, J. Dias, & J. van der Zwaan (Eds.), Emotion Modeling: Towards Pragmatic Computational Models of Affective Processes (pp. 76–98). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Investigaciones Europeas de Dirección y Economía de la Empresa.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014, October 16). The Chemistry of Pizza. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995). Improving Federal Performance in the Information Age: Issues and Opportunities--Fiscal Years 1996-98 (IAP-95-29). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mycroft, D. (2012). Minorities in leadership and financial performance of their Fortune 500 companies [Doctoral dissertation]. Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2006, January 1). Putting the Pan in Pan-American. New York Times, 14LI8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rowe, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Richardson & Sawers, 2002; Rowe, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Richardson & Sawers, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Mansouri et al., 2007)
  • 6 or more authors: (Rink et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleInvestigaciones Europeas de Dirección y Economía de la Empresa
ISSN (print)1135-2523

Other styles