How to format your references using the Investigaciones Europeas de Dirección y Economía de la Empresa citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Investigaciones Europeas de Dirección y Economía de la Empresa. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abbott, A. (2007). A place in the sun. Nature, 446(7132), 124–125.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nadeau, R. M., & Guilhem, A. (2009). Nonvolcanic tremor evolution and the San Simeon and Parkfield, California, earthquakes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5937), 191–193.
A journal article with 3 authors
Berson, D. M., Dunn, F. A., & Takao, M. (2002). Phototransduction by retinal ganglion cells that set the circadian clock. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5557), 1070–1073.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Christiaen, L., Davidson, B., Kawashima, T., Powell, W., Nolla, H., Vranizan, K., & Levine, M. (2008). The transcription/migration interface in heart precursors of Ciona intestinalis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5881), 1349–1352.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lee, K. B. (2011). Principles of Microelectromechanical Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Adams, N. M., Robardet, C., Siebes, A., & Boulicaut, J.-F. (Eds.). (2009). Advances in Intelligent Data Analysis VIII: 8th International Symposium on Intelligent Data Analysis, IDA 2009, Lyon, France, August 31 - September 2, 2009. Proceedings (Vol. 5772). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Balaprakash, P., Birattari, M., & Stützle, T. (2008). Engineering Stochastic Local Search Algorithms: A Case Study in Estimation-Based Local Search for the Probabilistic Travelling Salesman Problem. In C. Cotta & J. van Hemert (Eds.), Recent Advances in Evolutionary Computation for Combinatorial Optimization (pp. 53–66). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Investigaciones Europeas de Dirección y Economía de la Empresa.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2015, April 3). Giant, Tubular Creature Caught On Camera Under The Sea. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2002). Information Technology: DOD Needs to Improve Process for Ensuring Interoperability of Telecommunications Switches (No. GAO-02-681). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Meng, W. (2014). Synthesis and design of microwave wideband filters and components (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY, J. C., Jr. (2017, October 16). Running Unopposed, Yet Firmly on Defensive. New York Times, p. A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Abbott, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Abbott, 2007; Nadeau & Guilhem, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nadeau & Guilhem, 2009)
  • Three authors: (Berson, Dunn, & Takao, 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Christiaen et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleInvestigaciones Europeas de Dirección y Economía de la Empresa
ISSN (print)1135-2523

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