How to format your references using the Investigaciones Europeas de Dirección y Economía de la Empresa citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Investigaciones Europeas de Dirección y Economía de la Empresa. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rokas, A. (2013). Genetics. My oldest sister is a sea walnut? Science (New York, N.Y.), 342(6164), 1327–1329.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gale, M., Jr, & Foy, E. M. (2005). Evasion of intracellular host defence by hepatitis C virus. Nature, 436(7053), 939–945.
A journal article with 3 authors
Andersson, J. O., Doolittle, W. F., & Nesbø, C. L. (2001). Genomics. Are there bugs in our genome? Science (New York, N.Y.), 292(5523), 1848–1850.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kawahara, A., Nishi, T., Hisano, Y., Fukui, H., Yamaguchi, A., & Mochizuki, N. (2009). The sphingolipid transporter spns2 functions in migration of zebrafish myocardial precursors. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5913), 524–527.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Coles, A., & Hawkins, D. G. (2011). MIDAS Technical Analysis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Harris, H., Wijesinghe, G., & McKenzie, S. (Eds.). (2013). The Heart of the Good Institution: Virtue Ethics as a Framework for Responsible Management. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Mitra, S. K. (2013). Turning Aliens Into Citizens: A “Toolkit” for a Trans-Disciplinary Policy Analysis. In S. K. Mitra (Ed.), Citizenship as Cultural Flow: Structure, Agency and Power (pp. 65–84). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Investigaciones Europeas de Dirección y Economía de la Empresa.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2017, January 24). NASA Snaps Image Of Saturn’s Other Death Star Moon. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from IFLScience website:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1972). Selected Contracts, Purchase Orders, and Grants Awarded to Indian Tribes and Organizations During Fiscal Year 1971 (No. B-114868). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kyereboah, R. (2015). Criteria For Appointing Board Members to Corporate Boards in Ghana (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J. (2017, February 9). For ‘American Idol,’ a Possible Comeback. New York Times, p. C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rokas, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Gale & Foy, 2005; Rokas, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gale & Foy, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Andersson, Doolittle, & Nesbø, 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Kawahara et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleInvestigaciones Europeas de Dirección y Economía de la Empresa
ISSN (print)1135-2523

Other styles