How to format your references using the Investigaciones Europeas de Dirección y Economía de la Empresa citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Investigaciones Europeas de Dirección y Economía de la Empresa. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Conklin, B. R. (2009). Journal club. A geneticist wonders why we need to sleep. Nature, 461(7264), 573.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nanda, R., & Rhodes-Kropf, M. (2015). ENTREPRENEURSHIP. Financing experiments. Science (New York, N.Y.), 348(6240), 1200.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang, G., Liu, C., & Fan, S. (2013). Directly measuring of thermal pulse transfer in one-dimensional highly aligned carbon nanotubes. Scientific Reports, 3, 2549.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
van den Bogaart, G., Meyenberg, K., Risselada, H. J., Amin, H., Willig, K. I., Hubrich, B. E., Dier, M., Hell, S. W., Grubmüller, H., Diederichsen, U., & Jahn, R. (2011). Membrane protein sequestering by ionic protein-lipid interactions. Nature, 479(7374), 552–555.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rémond, Y., Ahzi, S., Baniassadi, M., & Garmestani, H. (2016). Applied RVE Reconstruction and Homogenization of Heterogeneous Materials. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Mach-Król, M., & Pełech-Pilichowski, T. (Eds.). (2014). Advances in Business ICT (Vol. 257). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Franke, A. (2011). Three-dimensional stress echocardiography. In T. Buck, A. Franke, & M. J. Monaghan (Eds.), Three-dimensional Echocardiography (pp. 73–81). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Investigaciones Europeas de Dirección y Economía de la Empresa.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2015, October 28). GM Tomatoes Contain 50 Red Wine Bottles’ Worth Of Resveratrol. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2007). Older Driver Safety: Knowledge Sharing Should Help States Prepare for Increase in Older Driver Population (GAO-07-413). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Matos, G. (2013). Re-fashioning goddesses: Exploring women’s archetypal fashion in the classroom [Doctoral dissertation]. Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2007, December 22). A Tortured Voice of a Lost Russian Generation. New York Times, A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Conklin, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Conklin, 2009; Nanda & Rhodes-Kropf, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nanda & Rhodes-Kropf, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Zhang et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (van den Bogaart et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleInvestigaciones Europeas de Dirección y Economía de la Empresa
ISSN (print)1135-2523

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