How to format your references using the Investigaciones Europeas de Dirección y Economía de la Empresa citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Investigaciones Europeas de Dirección y Economía de la Empresa. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tsapatsis, M. (2011). Materials science. Toward high-throughput zeolite membranes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 334(6057), 767–768.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tyc, T., & Zhang, X. (2011). Forum Optics: Perfect lenses in focus. Nature, 480(7375), 42–43.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fenn, K. M., Nusbaum, H. C., & Margoliash, D. (2003). Consolidation during sleep of perceptual learning of spoken language. Nature, 425(6958), 614–616.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
He, J.-X., Gendron, J. M., Sun, Y., Gampala, S. S. L., Gendron, N., Sun, C. Q., & Wang, Z.-Y. (2005). BZR1 is a transcriptional repressor with dual roles in brassinosteroid homeostasis and growth responses. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5715), 1634–1638.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mauthe, A., & Thomas, P. (2005). Professional Content Management Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Chen, G. G., & Lai, P. B. S. (Eds.). (2012). Novel Apoptotic Regulators in Carcinogenesis. Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Saunthararajah, Y., Lavelle, D., & DeSimone, J. (2014). Epigenetic Regulation of Globin Genes and Disturbances in Hemoglobinopathies. In M. Lübbert & P. A. Jones (Eds.), Epigenetic Therapy of Cancer: Preclinical Models and Treatment Approaches (pp. 89–106). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Investigaciones Europeas de Dirección y Economía de la Empresa.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, June 2). Don’t Take Selfies With Seals, Warns NOAA. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2007). Environmental Satellite Acquisitions: Progress and Challenges (GAO-07-1099T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Aloe-Chase, S. T. (2008). Family member perspectives on collaboration: An exploratory study [Doctoral dissertation]. Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Conte, L. (2011, May 5). Scouting Report. New York Times, E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Tsapatsis, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Tsapatsis, 2011; Tyc & Zhang, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tyc & Zhang, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Fenn et al., 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (He et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleInvestigaciones Europeas de Dirección y Economía de la Empresa
ISSN (print)1135-2523

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