How to format your references using the International Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Ophthalmology (Int Ophthalmol). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Moro-Martin A (2014) A call to those who care about Europe’s science. Nature 514:141
A journal article with 2 authors
Simpkins PG, Kuck VJ (2000) Air entrapment in coatings by way of a tip-streaming meniscus. Nature 403:641–643
A journal article with 3 authors
Begley CG, Buchan AM, Dirnagl U (2015) Robust research: Institutions must do their part for reproducibility. Nature 525:25–27
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Payne JL, Lehrmann DJ, Wei J, et al (2004) Large perturbations of the carbon cycle during recovery from the end-permian extinction. Science 305:506–509

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chappell D (2008) Parris’s Standard Form of Building Contract. Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Boulton AJM (2009) Managing Neuropathic Pain in the Diabetic Patient, Second Edition. Springer Healthcare Ltd., Tarporley
A chapter in an edited book
Waluszewski A (2013) Contemporary Research and Innovation Policy: A Double Disservice? In: Rider S, Hasselberg Y, Waluszewski A (eds) Transformations in Research, Higher Education and the Academic Market: The Breakdown of Scientific Thought. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 71–95

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Ophthalmology.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) Slow Motion Video Reveals How Raindrops Fall on Sand Like Asteroids. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2017) Radioactive Sources: Opportunities Exist for Federal Agencies to Strengthen Transportation Security. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Oakes AC (2006) States in Crisis: How Governments Respond to Domestic Unrest. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K (2002) North, South, North Again . . . A Street Tries to Make Up Its Mind. New York Times 145

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 1].
This sentence cites four references [1, 1, 1, 1].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Ophthalmology
AbbreviationInt. Ophthalmol.
ISSN (print)0165-5701
ISSN (online)1573-2630

Other styles