How to format your references using the International Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Burrow CJ (2003) Comment on “Separate evolutionary origins of teeth from evidence in fossil jawed vertebrates.” Science 300:1661; author reply 1661
A journal article with 2 authors
Heo JB, Sung S (2011) Vernalization-mediated epigenetic silencing by a long intronic noncoding RNA. Science 331:76–79
A journal article with 3 authors
Poinar H, Kuch M, Pääbo S (2001) Molecular analyses of oral polio vaccine samples. Science 292:743–744
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Wang J, Yao Z, Lei T, Poon AW (2014) Silicon coupled-resonator optical-waveguide-based biosensors using light-scattering pattern recognition with pixelized mode-field-intensity distributions. Sci Rep 4:7528

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Moeller R (2010) IT Audit, Control, and Security. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Stubblefield P, Bhattacharya N (2009) Frontiers of Cord Blood Science. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
Dieter Zeh H (2007) Roots and Fruits of Decoherence. In: Duplantier B, Raimond J-M, Rivasseau V (eds) Quantum Decoherence: Poincaré Seminar 2005. Birkhäuser, Basel, pp 151–175

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Ophthalmology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2017) What Should We Do With The International Space Station, Asks Congress. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) DOT’s Recommendation Response System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moody VJ (2012) Examining leadership styles and employee engagement in the public and private sectors. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly T (2006) Performing Miracles, With Wrench and Rivet. New York Times 144

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Ophthalmology
AbbreviationInt. Ophthalmol.
ISSN (print)0165-5701
ISSN (online)1573-2630

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