How to format your references using the International Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Berendsen HJ (2001) Bioinformatics. Reality simulation--observe while it happens. Science 294:2304–2305
A journal article with 2 authors
Mettetal JT, van Oudenaarden A (2007) Microbiology. Necessary noise. Science 317:463–464
A journal article with 3 authors
Dehaene-Lambertz G, Dehaene S, Hertz-Pannier L (2002) Functional neuroimaging of speech perception in infants. Science 298:2013–2015
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Lottermoser T, Lonkai T, Amann U, et al (2004) Magnetic phase control by an electric field. Nature 430:541–544

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yeakley CL, Fiebrich JD (2015) Collaborative Process Improvement. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Matta A, Li J, Sahin E, et al (2014) Proceedings of the International Conference on Health Care Systems Engineering. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
de Macedo JM, Teixeira CCC (2016) Capital Control Over Basic Education. In: Leher R, Accioly I (eds) Commodifying Education: Theoretical and Methodological Aspects of Financialization of Education Policies in Brazil. SensePublishers, Rotterdam, pp 59–82

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Ophthalmology.

Blog post
Davis J (2015) Poisonous Frogs Are More Susceptible To Extinction. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997) Job Corps: Participant Selection and Performance Measurement Need to Be Improved. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boggs BD (2012) An assessment of campus police departments across Mississippi’s public community and junior colleges. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K (2001) As a Neighborhood Rebuilds, An Ex-Gadfly Gets Some Clout. New York Times 144

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Ophthalmology
AbbreviationInt. Ophthalmol.
ISSN (print)0165-5701
ISSN (online)1573-2630

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