How to format your references using the International Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Speirs V (2012) Perspective: Not just for women. Nature 485:S66
A journal article with 2 authors
Bullock SL, Ish-Horowicz D (2001) Conserved signals and machinery for RNA transport in Drosophila oogenesis and embryogenesis. Nature 414:611–616
A journal article with 3 authors
Thulasiram HV, Erickson HK, Poulter CD (2007) Chimeras of two isoprenoid synthases catalyze all four coupling reactions in isoprenoid biosynthesis. Science 316:73–76
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Cavallini M, Graziosi P, Calbucci M, et al (2014) Selective electrochemical decomposition of outgrowths and nanopatterning in La 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO3 perovskite thin films. Sci Rep 4:7397

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Casper D (2011) Hollywood Film 1963-1976. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Wang X, Quinn PJ (2010) Endotoxins: Structure, Function and Recognition. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Sarma B, Sarma AK (2016) Optimal Allocation of Ecological Management Practices in a Hilly Urban Watershed. In: Sarma AK, Singh VP, Kartha SA, Bhattacharjya RK (eds) Urban Hydrology, Watershed Management and Socio-Economic Aspects. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 35–47

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Ophthalmology.

Blog post
Davis J (2015) Turning Street Lights Off At Night Had No Effect On The Number Of Road Accidents Or Crime Rate. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2012) Highlights of a Forum: Financial Literacy: Strengthening Partnerships in Challenging Times. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Best TF (2014) Evaluation of effectiveness, reproducibility, and repeatability of using dentition for estimating cattle age. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B (2017) Streaming Drives Up Music Sales in U.S., but Hold the Celebrations. New York Times B2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Ophthalmology
AbbreviationInt. Ophthalmol.
ISSN (print)0165-5701
ISSN (online)1573-2630

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