How to format your references using the International Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Hoag H (2005) Gene therapy rising? Nature 435:530–531
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Over H, Seitsonen AP (2002) Surface chemistry. Oxidation of metal surfaces. Science 297:2003–2005
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Contreras M, Ceric F, Torrealba F (2007) Inactivation of the interoceptive insula disrupts drug craving and malaise induced by lithium. Science 318:655–658
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Körner C, Asshoff R, Bignucolo O, et al (2005) Carbon flux and growth in mature deciduous forest trees exposed to elevated CO2. Science 309:1360–1362

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Janovy J, Esch GW (2016) A Century of Parasitology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
1.
Hilder S, Bettinson V (2016) Domestic Violence: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Protection, Prevention and Intervention. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Barton G (2015) Reflective Practice in Music: A Collaborative Professional Approach. In: Ryan ME (ed) Teaching Reflective Learning in Higher Education: A Systematic Approach Using Pedagogic Patterns. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 65–76

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Ophthalmology.

Blog post
1.
Andrew D (2017) Searching Deep And Dark: Building A Google For The Less Visible Parts Of The Web. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (1973) The F-14/PHOENIX Aircraft Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Hubbard WL (2009) The perceptions of public school administrators toward technology effectiveness and adequacy in curriculum and instruction in the Golden Triangle Public Schools of Mississippi. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Senior J (2017) A Teenager’s Mind At War With Itself. New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Ophthalmology
AbbreviationInt. Ophthalmol.
ISSN (print)0165-5701
ISSN (online)1573-2630
ScopeOphthalmology

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