How to format your references using the International Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Mayer ML (2006) Glutamate receptors at atomic resolution. Nature 440:456–462
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Wyithe JSB, Loeb A (2002) Magnification of light from many distant quasars by gravitational lenses. Nature 417:923–925
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Wang A, Kurdistani SK, Grunstein M (2002) Requirement of Hos2 histone deacetylase for gene activity in yeast. Science 298:1412–1414
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Smith JB, Lamanna MC, Lacovara KJ, et al (2001) A giant sauropod dinosaur from an Upper Cretaceous mangrove deposit in Egypt. Science 292:1704–1706

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Hofmeyr GJ, Neilson JP, Alfirevic Z, et al (2008) A Cochrane Pocketbook: Pregnancy and Childbirth. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
1.
Menon ME, Terkla DG, Gibbs P (2014) Using Data to Improve Higher Education: Research, Policy and Practice. SensePublishers, Rotterdam
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Treece G, Lindop J, Gee A, Prager R (2009) Near-Real-Time 3D Ultrasonic Strain Imaging. In: Akiyama I (ed) Acoustical Imaging. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 27–32

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Ophthalmology.

Blog post
1.
Hale T (2016) Scientists Made A Lego Maze To See How Groups Of Ants Coordinate. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (1998) National Weather Service: Budget Events and Continuing Risks of Systems Modernization. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Chryssis AN (2010) Design and fabrication of high-performance interband cascade tunable external cavity lasers. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Walsh MW (2011) Contractor’s Work Faulted At U.S. Pension Guarantor. New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Ophthalmology
AbbreviationInt. Ophthalmol.
ISSN (print)0165-5701
ISSN (online)1573-2630
ScopeOphthalmology

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