How to format your references using the International Journal of Technology and Design Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Technology and Design Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reichhardt, T. (2005). Touched by an angel. Nature, 435(7043), 734–735.
A journal article with 2 authors
Krishnan, R., & Lindquist, S. L. (2005). Structural insights into a yeast prion illuminate nucleation and strain diversity. Nature, 435(7043), 765–772.
A journal article with 3 authors
Liu, L., Spasojevic, S., & Gurnis, M. (2008). Reconstructing Farallon plate subduction beneath North America back to the Late Cretaceous. Science (New York, N.Y.), 322(5903), 934–938.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Orvedahl, A., Sumpter, R., Jr, Xiao, G., Ng, A., Zou, Z., Tang, Y., et al. (2011). Image-based genome-wide siRNA screen identifies selective autophagy factors. Nature, 480(7375), 113–117.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
van Vreeswijk, M., Broersen, J., & Schurink, G. (2014). Mindfulness and Schema Therapy. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Cruz, I., Decker, S., Allemang, D., Preist, C., Schwabe, D., Mika, P., et al. (Eds.). (2006). The Semantic Web - ISWC 2006: 5th International Semantic Web Conference, ISWC 2006, Athens, GA, USA, November 5-9, 2006. Proceedings (Vol. 4273). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Nardo, L. G., & Chouliaras, S. (2015). Definitions and Epidemiology of Unexplained Female Infertility. In G. L. Schattman, S. C. Esteves, & A. Agarwal (Eds.), Unexplained Infertility: Pathophysiology, Evaluation and Treatment (pp. 21–25). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Technology and Design Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, July 18). 10 Science Jokes for Nerds. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). International Space Station: U.S. Life-Cycle Funding Requirements (No. NSIAD-98-147). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wizda, L. L. (2010). A case study of online peer coaching of consultant communication skill development (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yee, V., & Schweber, N. (2015, April 1). Fleeting Stability for a Woman Charged With Killing Her Son. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Reichhardt 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Krishnan and Lindquist 2005; Reichhardt 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Krishnan and Lindquist 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Orvedahl et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Technology and Design Education
AbbreviationInt. J. Technol. Des. Educ.
ISSN (print)0957-7572
ISSN (online)1573-1804
ScopeGeneral Engineering

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