How to format your references using the International Journal of Technology and Design Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Technology and Design Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2001). US structural genomics effort needs physicists for success. Nature, 410(6829), 723–724.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tomita, K., & Weiner, A. M. (2001). Collaboration between CC- and A-adding enzymes to build and repair the 3’-terminal CCA of tRNA in Aquifex aeolicus. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5545), 1334–1336.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaczmarczyk, A., Vorholt, J. A., & Francez-Charlot, A. (2014). Synthetic vanillate-regulated promoter for graded gene expression in Sphingomonas. Scientific reports, 4, 6453.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Leinders-Zufall, T., Lane, A. P., Puche, A. C., Ma, W., Novotny, M. V., Shipley, M. T., & Zufall, F. (2000). Ultrasensitive pheromone detection by mammalian vomeronasal neurons. Nature, 405(6788), 792–796.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Larose, D. T. (2005). Data Mining Methods and Models. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bähr, M. (Ed.). (2006). Brain Repair (Vol. 557). Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Yairi, I. E., Kayama, K., & Igi, S. (2007). Robotic Communication Terminals as a Ubiquitous System for Improving Human Mobility by Making Environment Virtually Barrier-Free. In A. Sakurai, K. Hasida, & K. Nitta (Eds.), New Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence: JSAI 2003 and JSAI 2004 Conferences and Workshops, Niigata, Japan, June 23-27, 2003 and Kanazawa, Japan, May 31 - June 4, 2004, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 61–75). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Technology and Design Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, January 9). New Gadget Can Turn Any HDTV Into A Desktop Computer. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1974). Activities of the National Institute of Education, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (No. B-164031(1)). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Graves, K. A. (2012). An Exploration of Organizational Commitment among Generation X Leaders (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S. K. (2003, January 29). World Briefing | Europe: Ukraine: Border Accord With Russia. New York Times, p. A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik 2001; Tomita and Weiner 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tomita and Weiner 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Leinders-Zufall et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Technology and Design Education
AbbreviationInt. J. Technol. Des. Educ.
ISSN (print)0957-7572
ISSN (online)1573-1804
ScopeGeneral Engineering

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