How to format your references using the International Journal of Technology and Design Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Technology and Design Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
de Chadarevian, S. (2003). Perceptions in science. The making of an icon. Science (New York, N.Y.), 300(5617), 255–257.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hattori, M., & Gouaux, E. (2012). Molecular mechanism of ATP binding and ion channel activation in P2X receptors. Nature, 485(7397), 207–212.
A journal article with 3 authors
Taylor, D. M., Tillery, S. I. H., & Schwartz, A. B. (2002). Direct cortical control of 3D neuroprosthetic devices. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5574), 1829–1832.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Shimono, K., Fujishima, K., Nomura, T., Ohashi, M., Usui, T., Kengaku, M., et al. (2014). An evolutionarily conserved protein CHORD regulates scaling of dendritic arbors with body size. Scientific reports, 4, 4415.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rittereiser, C. M., & Kochard, L. E. (2010). Top Hedge Fund Investors. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Sutradhar, B. C. (Ed.). (2016). Advances and Challenges in Parametric and Semi-parametric Analysis for Correlated Data: Proceedings of the 2015 International Symposium in Statistics (Vol. 218). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Kwiecien, G. J. (2015). Fallopian Tube Anastomosis. In M. Z. Siemionow (Ed.), Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery: Experimental Models and Research Designs (pp. 39–43). London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Technology and Design Education.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, May 9). Researchers Confirm Those With Depression Experience “Fuzzy Thinking.” IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1971). Assessment of the Impact of the Teacher Corps Program at the University of Miami and Participating Schools in South Florida (No. B-164031(1)). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wilkins, D. (2015). The Value of the Semantic Differential to the Art Educator (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. (2010, September 2). Framing a Statement. New York Times, p. E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (de Chadarevian 2003).
This sentence cites two references (de Chadarevian 2003; Hattori and Gouaux 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hattori and Gouaux 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Shimono et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Technology and Design Education
AbbreviationInt. J. Technol. Des. Educ.
ISSN (print)0957-7572
ISSN (online)1573-1804
ScopeGeneral Engineering

Other styles