How to format your references using the International Journal of Technology and Design Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Technology and Design Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Birkhead, T. (2014). Stormy outlook for long-term ecology studies. Nature, 514(7523), 405.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lin, S.-C., & van Keken, P. E. (2005). Multiple volcanic episodes of flood basalts caused by thermochemical mantle plumes. Nature, 436(7048), 250–252.
A journal article with 3 authors
Runyon, J. B., Mescher, M. C., & De Moraes, C. M. (2006). Volatile chemical cues guide host location and host selection by parasitic plants. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5795), 1964–1967.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Brixner, T., Damrauer, N. H., Niklaus, P., & Gerber, G. (2001). Photoselective adaptive femtosecond quantum control in the liquid phase. Nature, 414(6859), 57–60.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Deroussi, L. (2016). Metaheuristics for Logistics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Morazán, M. T., & Scholz, S.-B. (Eds.). (2010). Implementation and Application of Functional Languages: 21st International Symposium, IFL 2009, South Orange, NJ, USA, September 23-25, 2009, Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 6041). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Demazeux, S. (2015). The Function Debate and the Concept of Mental Disorder. In P. Huneman, G. Lambert, & M. Silberstein (Eds.), Classification, Disease and Evidence: New Essays in the Philosophy of Medicine (pp. 63–91). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Technology and Design Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, February 6). Giant Mysterious Jellyfish Washes Up On Tasmanian Shores. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2011). Information Technology: OMB Needs to Improve Its Guidance on IT Investments (No. GAO-11-826). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rajendran, N. (2010). Assessment of upper extremity strength, power, and flexibility characteristics of college-aged male and female students (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2009, April 12). Sorting Out their Goals, and Options. New York Times, p. WE7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Birkhead 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Birkhead 2014; Lin and van Keken 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lin and van Keken 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Brixner et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Technology and Design Education
AbbreviationInt. J. Technol. Des. Educ.
ISSN (print)0957-7572
ISSN (online)1573-1804
ScopeGeneral Engineering

Other styles