How to format your references using the International Journal of Technology and Design Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Technology and Design Education (Int J Technol Des Educ). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fender, R. P. (2000). ASTRONOMY: A New Source of Gamma Rays. Science (New York, N.Y.), 288(5475), 2326.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kondo, S., & Miura, T. (2010). Reaction-diffusion model as a framework for understanding biological pattern formation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5999), 1616–1620.
A journal article with 3 authors
Perrin, R. J., Fagan, A. M., & Holtzman, D. M. (2009). Multimodal techniques for diagnosis and prognosis of Alzheimer’s disease. Nature, 461(7266), 916–922.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Boto, E., Holmes, N., Leggett, J., Roberts, G., Shah, V., Meyer, S. S., et al. (2018). Moving magnetoencephalography towards real-world applications with a wearable system. Nature, 555(7698), 657–661.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pandrea, N., & Stănescu, N.-D. (2015). Dynamics of the Rigid Solid with General Constraints by a Multibody Approach. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Lemke, K., Paar, C., & Wolf, M. (Eds.). (2006). Embedded Security in Cars: Securing Current and Future Automotive IT Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Sarin, S., & Dholakia, N. (2016). Higher Education in India at a Crossroads: The Imperative for Transcending Stagnation and Embracing Innovation. In R. V. Turcan, J. E. Reilly, & L. Bugaian (Eds.), (Re)Discovering University Autonomy: The Global Market Paradox of Stakeholder and Educational Values in Higher Education (pp. 55–72). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Technology and Design Education.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2015, November 13). Practically Unknown STI Could Have Infected Huge Numbers Of People Without Them Knowing Anything About It. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995). FDA Import Automation: Serious Management and Systems Development Problems Persist (No. AIMD-95-188). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Arens, J. L. (2015). Power, Oppression, and Group Difference Interrogation: A Call to Social Justice Movement Organizations (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, E. (1995, May 14). The Storefront Psychic: A Peek Inside. New York Times, p. 131.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gordon 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Anbar 2008; Soderblom 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kondo and Miura 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Osyczka et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Technology and Design Education
AbbreviationInt. J. Technol. Des. Educ.
ISSN (print)0957-7572
ISSN (online)1573-1804
ScopeGeneral Engineering

Other styles