How to format your references using the International Journal of Technology and Design Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Technology and Design Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bourzac, K. (2015). Therapy: An immune one-two punch. Nature, 528(7582), S134-6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Steinle, A., & Cerwenka, A. (2015). Immunology. MULT1plying cancer immunity. Science (New York, N.Y.), 348(6230), 45–46.
A journal article with 3 authors
Thompson, J. K., Peterson, M. R., & Freeman, R. D. (2003). Single-neuron activity and tissue oxygenation in the cerebral cortex. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5609), 1070–1072.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Li, J., Wang, X., Zhao, L., Gao, X., Zhao, Y., & Zhou, R. (2014). Rotation motion of designed nano-turbine. Scientific reports, 4, 5846.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jazar, R. N. (2011). Advanced Dynamics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Feng, L., Wang, G., Zeng, C., & Huang, R. (Eds.). (2006). Web Information Systems – WISE 2006 Workshops: WISE 2006 International Workshops, Wuhan, China, October 23-26, 2006. Proceedings (Vol. 4256). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
McMillen, C. P., Rybski, P. E., & Veloso, M. M. (2005). Levels of Multi-Robot Coordination for Dynamic Environments. In L. E. Parker, F. E. Schneider, & A. C. Schultz (Eds.), Multi-Robot Systems. From Swarms to Intelligent Automata Volume III: Proceedings from the 2005 International Workshop on Multi-Robot Systems (pp. 53–64). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Technology and Design Education.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2015, July 7). New Horizons Suffers Glitch Just Ten Days Before its Arrival at Pluto. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1980). Community-Based Correctional Programs Can Do More To Help Offenders (No. GGD-80-25). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Borgman, G. A. (2017). Loneliness and the Hermitic Psyche (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear, M. D. (2017, June 29). Trump Halted Chemical Attack, Officials Say. New York Times, p. A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bourzac 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Bourzac 2015; Steinle and Cerwenka 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Steinle and Cerwenka 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Technology and Design Education
AbbreviationInt. J. Technol. Des. Educ.
ISSN (print)0957-7572
ISSN (online)1573-1804
ScopeGeneral Engineering

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