How to format your references using the International Journal of STD & AIDS citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of STD & AIDS. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Boehncke W-H. Perspective: Don’t be superficial. Nature. 2012 Dec 20;492(7429):S55.
A journal article with 2 authors
Charron S, Koechlin E. Divided representation of concurrent goals in the human frontal lobes. Science. 2010 Apr 16;328(5976):360–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tucker SA, Hanuscin DL, Bearnes CJ. The pipeline. Igniting girls’ interest in science. Science. 2008 Mar 21;319(5870):1621–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Merceron-Saffon N, Baceiredo A, Gornitzka H, Bertrand G. Synthesis of carbenes through substitution reactions at a carbene center. Science. 2003 Aug 29;301(5637):1223–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yao Y, Liu S. Ultrasonic Technology for Desiccant Regeneration. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Benedicks M, Jones PW, Smirnov S, Winckler B, editors. Perspectives in Analysis: Essays in Honor of Lennart Carleson’s 75th Birthday. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005. XIV, 378 p. (Mathematical Physics Studies; vol. 27).
A chapter in an edited book
Robertson D. A Problem of their Own, Solutions of their Own: CEE Jurisdictions and the Problems of Lustration and Retroactivity. In: Sadurski W, Czarnota A, Krygier M, editors. Spreading Democracy and the Rule of Law?: The Impact of EU Enlargement on the Rule of Law, Democracy and Constitutionalism in Post-Communist Legal Orders. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006. p. 73–96.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of STD & AIDS.

Blog post
Andrew E. Climate Meme Debunked As The ‘Tropospheric Hot Spot’ Is Found [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Library Support Programs: Progress and Problems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1974 Dec. Report No.: MWD-75-4.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zellner KM. An examination of grade distribution patterns and grade inflation at a baccalaureate nursing program [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. Get a Little Closer To the Sun. New York Times. 2010 Jun 17;E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of STD & AIDS
AbbreviationInt. J. STD AIDS
ISSN (print)0956-4624
ISSN (online)1758-1052
Infectious Diseases
Pharmacology (medical)
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles