How to format your references using the International Journal of Research & Method in Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Research & Method in Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jones, G. 2000. “Total Internal Reflection.” Nature 403 (6771): 707.
A journal article with 2 authors
Moine, H., and J. L. Mandel. 2001. “Biomedicine. Do G Quartets Orchestrate Fragile X Pathology?” Science (New York, N.Y.) 294 (5551): 2487–2488.
A journal article with 3 authors
Reyners, Martin, Donna Eberhart-Phillips, and Graham Stuart. 2007. “The Role of Fluids in Lower-Crustal Earthquakes near Continental Rifts.” Nature 446 (7139): 1075–1078.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Enquist, Brian J., Andrew P. Allen, James H. Brown, James F. Gillooly, Andrew J. Kerkhoff, Karl J. Niklas, Charles A. Price, and Geoffrey B. West. 2007. “Biological Scaling: Does the Exception Prove the Rule?” Nature 445 (7127): E9-10; discussion E10-1.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Owen, Joel S., and Jill Fiedler-Kelly. 2014. Introduction to Population Pharmacokinetic / Pharmacodynamic Analysis with Nonlinear Mixed Effects Models. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gulbins, Erich, and Irina Petrache, eds. 2013. Sphingolipids: Basic Science and Drug Development. Vol. 215. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology. Vienna: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Hausawi, Yasser M., and William H. Allen. 2014. “An Assessment Framework for Usable-Security Based on Decision Science.” In Human Aspects of Information Security, Privacy, and Trust: Second International Conference, HAS 2014, Held as Part of HCI International 2014, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, June 22-27, 2014. Proceedings, edited by Theo Tryfonas and Ioannis Askoxylakis, 33–44. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Research & Method in Education.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Could Ancient Textbooks Be The Source Of The Next Medical Breakthrough?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1989. Budgetary Implications of IRS’ Tax System Modernization and Automated Examination System Efforts. T-IMTEC-89-4. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Plosky, Willyanne Decormier. 2017. “An Investment Case for Addressing Social Drivers of Structural Stigma and Discrimination Against Refugees in Resource-Poor Urban Areas.” Doctoral dissertation, New York, NY: Columbia University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Haskell, David George. 2017. “Springing Too Far Ahead.” New York Times, March 17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jones 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Jones 2000; Moine and Mandel 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Moine and Mandel 2001)
  • Three authors: (Reyners, Eberhart-Phillips, and Stuart 2007)
  • 4 or more authors: (Enquist et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Research & Method in Education
ISSN (print)1743-727X
ISSN (online)1743-7288

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