How to format your references using the International Journal of Pharmaceutics: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Pharmaceutics: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Seife, C., 2000. NEUROPSYCHOLOGY: Language Affects Sound Perception. Science 290, 2051b–2b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Balskus, E.P., Jacobsen, E.N., 2007. Asymmetric catalysis of the transannular Diels-Alder reaction. Science 317, 1736–1740.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schulte, D.M., Burke, R.P., Lipcius, R.N., 2009. Unprecedented restoration of a native oyster metapopulation. Science 325, 1124–1128.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Thilker, D.A., Donovan, J., Schiminovich, D., Bianchi, L., Boissier, S., de Paz, A.G., Madore, B.F., Martin, D.C., Seibert, M., 2009. Massive star formation within the Leo “primordial” ring. Nature 457, 990–993.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sox, H.C., Higgins, M.C., Owens, D.K., 2013. Medical Decision Making. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Maharry, D., 2005. Beginning VB .NET 1.1 Databases: From Novice to Professional. Apress, Berkeley, CA.
A chapter in an edited book
Lowenthal, F., Lefebvre, L., 2014. Nonverbal Communication Devices, Language, Cerebral Flexibility, and Recursive Exercises, in: Lowenthal, F., Lefebvre, L. (Eds.), Language and Recursion. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 39–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Pharmaceutics: X.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2014. Canadian Weather Forecasters Forbidden From Discussing Climate Change [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1976. USDA Proposal To Acquire Automatic Data Processing Equipment (No. LCD-76-120). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chung, E.K., 2003. The Sophisticated Genetic Diversities of Human Complement Component C4 and RCCX Modules in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M., 1992. THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Democrats; Clinton, on Tour of Western States, Chides G.O.P. for Investigating His Mother. New York Times A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Seife, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Balskus and Jacobsen, 2007; Seife, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Balskus and Jacobsen, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Thilker et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Pharmaceutics: X
ISSN (print)2590-1567

Other styles