How to format your references using the International Journal of Pharmaceutics: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Pharmaceutics: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Anderson, P., 2000. Consequences. Perhaps the biotech sector should have employed more philosophers. Nature 405, 281.
A journal article with 2 authors
Olsen, S.R., Wilson, R.I., 2008. Lateral presynaptic inhibition mediates gain control in an olfactory circuit. Nature 452, 956–960.
A journal article with 3 authors
Reichenbach, T., Mobilia, M., Frey, E., 2007. Mobility promotes and jeopardizes biodiversity in rock-paper-scissors games. Nature 448, 1046–1049.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kostrewa, D., Zeller, M.E., Armache, K.-J., Seizl, M., Leike, K., Thomm, M., Cramer, P., 2009. RNA polymerase II-TFIIB structure and mechanism of transcription initiation. Nature 462, 323–330.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Minns, P., Elliott, I., 2008. FSM-Based Digital Design Using Verilog HDL. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Burger, J. (Ed.), 2011. Stakeholders and Scientists: Achieving Implementable Solutions to Energy and Environmental Issues. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Buthelezi, T., 2016. IsiZulu Language and the Ilanga Newspaper as Catalysts for Participatory Democracy in South Africa, in: Salawu, A., Chibita, M.B. (Eds.), Indigenous Language Media, Language Politics and Democracy in Africa. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, pp. 59–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Pharmaceutics: X.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2014. Mysterious 55-Million-Year-Old Rhino-Horse Relative Found in India [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1986. Defaulted Student Loans: Guaranty Agencies’ Collection Practices and Procedures (No. HRD-86-114BR). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Crawford, M.J., 2009. Empire’s experts: The politics of knowledge in Spain’s royal monopoly of quina (1751–1808) (Doctoral dissertation). University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Currie, A., Hay, G., 2011. Big Temptations For Wells Fargo. New York Times B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Anderson, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Anderson, 2000; Olsen and Wilson, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Olsen and Wilson, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Kostrewa et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Pharmaceutics: X
ISSN (print)2590-1567

Other styles