How to format your references using the International Journal of Pharmaceutics: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Pharmaceutics: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Drake, N., 2015. How to catch a cloud. Nature 522, 115–116.
A journal article with 2 authors
Reck, B.K., Graedel, T.E., 2012. Challenges in metal recycling. Science 337, 690–695.
A journal article with 3 authors
Reich, D.S., Mechler, F., Victor, J.D., 2001. Independent and redundant information in nearby cortical neurons. Science 294, 2566–2568.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Falkowski, P.G., Katz, M.E., Knoll, A.H., Quigg, A., Raven, J.A., Schofield, O., Taylor, F.J.R., 2004. The evolution of modern eukaryotic phytoplankton. Science 305, 354–360.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bojowald, M., 2012. The Universe: A View from Classical and Quantum Gravity. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Brugali, D., Broenink, J.F., Kroeger, T., MacDonald, B.A. (Eds.), 2014. Simulation, Modeling, and Programming for Autonomous Robots: 4th International Conference, SIMPAR 2014, Bergamo, Italy, October 20-23, 2014. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Cheung, J., 2008. The Arts-in-Education Programme, in: Joubert, L. (Ed.), Educating in the Arts: The Asian Experience: Twenty-Four Essays. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 65–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Pharmaceutics: X.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2016. New Pathogen Discovered In Africa Causes Anthrax-Like Disease [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2005. Telecommunications: Application of the Antideficiency Act and Other Fiscal Controls to FCC’s E-Rate Program (No. GAO-05-546T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Armani, M.D., 2010. Nucleic acid extraction and detection across two-dimensional tissue samples (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Smith, M., Kovaleski, S.F., 2017. For Officers After a Shooting, Unseen ‘Grieving.’ New York Times A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Drake, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Drake, 2015; Reck and Graedel, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Reck and Graedel, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Falkowski et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Pharmaceutics: X
ISSN (print)2590-1567

Other styles